Clin Orthop Surg.  2021 Jun;13(2):168-174. 10.4055/cios20079.

Treatment of 10-mm-Deep or Greater Uncontained Tibial Bone Defects in Primary Total Knee Reconstruction without Metal Augmentation: Autologous Oblique Structural Peg Bone and Cancellous Chip Bone Grafting

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Daejeon Sun Hospital, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract

Background
In this study, we report satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes after autologous oblique structural peg bone and cancellous chip bone grafting without metal augmentation, including the use of a metal wedge, block, or additional stem, for patients with ≥ 10-mm-deep uncontained medial proximal tibial bone defects in primary total knee replacement.
Methods
The study group included 40 patients with primary total knee replacement with ≥ 10-mm-deep uncontained tibial bone defects who underwent autologous oblique structural peg bone and cancellous chip bone grafting and were followed-up for at least 1 year. Tibial cutting was performed up to a depth of 10 mm from the articular surface of the lateral tibial condyle, after which the height and area of the remaining bone defect in the medial condyle were measured. The bone defect was treated by making a peg bone and chip bone using excised segments of the tibia and femur. In all cases, the standard tibial stem and full cemented fixation techniques were used without metal augmentation. Preoperative and final follow-up radiologic changes and clinical measures were compared, and prosthesis loosening and bone union were checked radiologically at final follow-up.
Results
The mean depth of the bone defects was 10.9 mm, and the mean percentage of the area occupied by bone defects in the axial plane was 18.4%. The mean mechanical femorotibial angle was corrected from 19.5° varus preoperatively to 0.2° varus postoperatively (p < 0.002). There was no prosthesis loosening, and all cases showed bone union at the 1-year postoperative follow-up.
Conclusions
Even in patients with uncontained tibial bone defects ≥ 10-mm deep in primary total knee replacement, if the defect occupies less than 30% of the cut surface, autologous oblique structural peg bone and cancellous chip bone grafting can be used to achieve satisfactory outcomes with a standard tibial stem and no metal augmentation.

Keyword

Tibial bone defect; Radiography; Total knee arthroplasty; Autologous bone graft
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