Investig Clin Urol.  2021 May;62(3):324-330. 10.4111/icu.20200495.

Penile circumference and stretched penile length in prepubertal children: A retrospective, single-center pilot study

  • 1Department of Urology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea.
  • 2Department of Urology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.
  • 3Department of Urology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea.
  • 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.


To determine references for penile circumference according to age in prepubertal children and whether this measurement can be used as a basic penile parameter along with stretched penile length in prepubertal children.
Materials and Methods
A total of 750 children (mean age, 4.2±3.4 years) aged under 14 years without penile problems were enrolled in this study. Children with penile or testicular abnormalities were excluded. All data were gathered at the outpatient clinic by a single pediatric urologist from July 2017 to April 2020. Penile parameters (baseline and stretched penile length, penile circumference) and testicular volumes were measured by using an elastic ruler and a Prader orchidometer, respectively.
Mean baseline and stretched penile lengths were 3.0±1.0 cm and 4.2±1.0 cm, respectively. The mean penile circumference was 4.2±0.9 cm. The stretched penile length was similar to penile circumference (p=0.425). This similarity was found for each age group except for the 0–1-year-old and 3–4-year-old age groups (p=0.001 and p=0.034, respectively). As children grow into adolescence, stretched penile length increases significantly compared to penile circumference.
Penile circumference increased with age like stretched penile length and testicular volume in prepubertal children. Stretched penile length and penile circumference were found to be similar. This study can be used as a basic reference for penile circumference values in prepubertal children.


Child; Nomograms; Penis; Reference values; Testis
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