J Korean Dysphagia Soc.  2021 Jan;11(1):15-24. 10.34160/jkds.2021.11.1.003.

Designed Meal Development and Sensory Evaluation for Dysphagia Patients

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3National Traffic Injury Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangpyeong, Korea


Thickening agents used in dysphagia diets to adjust the viscosity of foods adversely affect the inherent food flavors and colors. Chopped and ground foods have unfamiliar flavors, colors and textures, causing a loss of appetite. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a savory and easy-to-make dysphagia diet without changing the appearance and taste of foods, and evaluate the suitability of the newly developed diet for patients with dysphagia.
Twenty participants aged 55-85 years (8 patients with dysphagia and 12 healthy elderly) were recruited. The diet consisted of fried rice, hamburger steak, and soybean paste soup, where the solid foods were categorized as International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) Level 5 (Minced and Moist), and the liquid foods were categorized as IDDSI Level 2 (Mildly Thick). To develop the dysphagia diet, textural modifications to the ingredients and viscosity adjustments were applied. A sensory evaluation was conducted by the panel to measure the extent of chewing, swallowing, adhesiveness, choking, and overall flavor and preference.
No significant differences in textural properties, such as chewing, swallowing, adhesiveness and choking, were observed between the control and patient groups, but the flavor and preferences in the patient group were statistically significant.
The modified and newly designed dysphagia foods positively impacted easy swallowing for patients with dysphagia. Therefore, customized dysphagia foods should be considered in terms of flavor-enhancement to provide tailored diets for patients with dysphagia.


Dysphagia; Food structure; IDDSI; Texture modulator; Thickening agents
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