Korean J Dent Mater.  2020 Sep;47(3):131-142. 10.14815/kjdm.2020.47.3.131.

Remineralization effect of experimental fluoride varnish with nano-sized hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate

  • 1Department of Dental Biomaterials, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea
  • 2Department of Dental Hygiene, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan, Korea
  • 3Institute of Biomaterial-Implant, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remineralization effect of experimental fluoride varnish mixed with nano-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) on bovine teeth under demineralization and remineralization cycling by Vickers hardness. After fabrication of rosin-based experimental fluoride varnish with 5 wt% of NaF (EX) in the laboratory, 10 wt% of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA+EX) and nano-TCP (TC+EX) were mixed, respectively. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (Tooth mousse) (CP) was used for comparison. Bovine incisors were impregnated by acrylic resin and exposed to caries inducing solution for 72 hours. EX, HA+EX, TC+EX, and CP were applied on the surface of bovine teeth. The specimens were immersed in a demineralization solution for 1 hour and in a re-mineralization solution for 23 hours and the cycle was repeated for 20 days. Vickers hardness was measured at baseline and after each treatment. CP group showed the highest hardness value at 24 hours after application of each material (p<0.05) and the other groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). On the 10th day of de-/re-mineralization cycling, the TC+EX group showed the highest hardness value (p<0.05), but not significantly different from the HA+EX group (p>0.05). On the 20th day, the TC+EX group kept the highest hardness value, followed by HA+EX and EX groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, experimental fluoride varnish with 10 wt% of nano-TCP showed higher remineralization effect on the enamel of bovine teeth during the de/re-mineralization cycling.


Remineralization; Demineralization; Hydroxyapatite; Tricalcium phosphate; Vickers hardness; Fluoride varnish
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