Nutr Res Pract.  2021 Feb;15(1):95-105. 10.4162/nrp.2021.15.1.95.

Development and validation of prediction equations for the assessment of muscle or fat mass using anthropometric measurements, serum creatinine level, and lifestyle factors among Korean adults

  • 1Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea
  • 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul 03080, Korea
  • 3Department of Public Health Science, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea


The measurement of body composition, including muscle and fat mass, remains challenging in large epidemiological studies due to time constraint and cost when using accurate modalities. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate prediction equations according to sex to measure lean body mass (LBM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and body fat mass (BFM) using anthropometric measurement, serum creatinine level, and lifestyle factors as independent variables and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the reference method.
A sample of the Korean general adult population (men:7,599; women:10,009) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 was included in this study. The participants were divided into the derivation and validation groups via a random number generator (with a ratio of 70:30). The prediction equations were developed using a series of multivariable linear regressions and validated using the Bland– Altman plot and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).
The initial and practical equations that included age, height, weight, and waist circumference had a different predictive ability for LBM (men: R2 = 0.85, standard error of estimate [SEE] = 2.7 kg; women: R2 = 0.78, SEE = 2.2 kg), ASM (men: R2= 0.81, SEE = 1.6 kg; women: R2 = 0.71, SEE = 1.2 kg), and BFM (men: R2 = 0.74, SEE = 2.7 kg; women: R2 = 0.83, SEE = 2.2 kg) according to sex. Compared with the first prediction equation, the addition of other factors, including serum creatinine level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol use, resulted in an R2 that is higher by 0.01 and SEE that is lower by 0.1.
All equations had low bias, moderate agreement based on the Bland–Altman plot, and high ICC, and this result showed that these equations can be further applied to other epidemiologic studies.


Anthropometry; body composition; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; predictive value of tests; validation study
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