J Korean Fract Soc.  2021 Jan;34(1):34-43. 10.12671/jkfs.2021.34.1.34.

Pediatric Femoral Neck Fracture

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Pediatric femoral neck fracture is an uncommon injury with a high complication rate, regardless of the appropriate diagnosis and management. The bony anatomy and blood supply of the proximal femur in a skeletally immature patient differ from those in adult patients. Generally, these fractures result from high-energy trauma, but pathologic hip fractures also occur, usually from low-energy trauma. Pediatric femoral neck fractures are categorized using the Delbet classification system. This classification guides management and aids clinicians in determining the risk of avascular osteonecrosis. The ideal surgical treatment is determined by the fracture type and the age of the patient. Reduction, which is achieved using a closed or open procedure, combined with stable fixation and/or cast immobilization, is recommended for most of these fractures. Anatomical reduction within 24 hours from the injury may result in a good surgical outcome. Although the effects of capsular decompression after reduction and fixation have not been established, decompression is easy to perform and may reduce the risk of avascular necrosis. Despite appropriate management, osteonecrosis can occur after all types of pediatric femur neck fractures. Other complications include coxa vara, nonunion, and premature physeal arrest.

Keyword

Femoral neck fractures; Fracture fixation; Avascular osteonecrosis
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