Clin Mol Hepatol.  2021 Jan;27(1):175-185. 10.3350/cmh.2020.0068.

Alcohol associated liver cirrhotics have higher mortality after index hospitalization: Long-term data of 5,138 patients

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Clinical Research, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India
  • 2Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India

Abstract

Background/Aims
Liver cirrhosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Every episode of decompensation and hospitalization reduces survival. We studied the clinical profile and long-term outcomes comparing alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALC) and non-ALC.

Methods
Cirrhosis patients at index hospitalisation (from January 2010 to June 2017), with ≥1 year follow-up were included.

Results
Five thousand and one hundred thirty-eight cirrhosis patients (age, 49.8±14.6 years; male, 79.5%; alcohol, 39.5%; Child-A:B:C, 11.7%:41.6%:46.8%) from their index hospitalization were analysed. The median time from diagnosis of cirrhosis to index hospitalization was 2 years (0.2–10). One thousand and seven hundred seven patients (33.2%) died within a year; 1,248 (24.3%) during index hospitalization. 59.5% (2,316/3,890) of the survivors, required at least one readmission, with additional mortality of 19.8% (459/2,316). ALC compared to non-ALC were more often (P<0.001) male (97.7% vs. 67.7%), younger (40–50 group, 36.2% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) with higher liver related complications at baseline, (P<0.001 for each), sepsis: 20.3% vs. 14.9%; ascites: 82.2% vs. 65.9%; spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: 21.8% vs. 15.7%; hepatic encephalopathy: 41.0% vs. 25.0%; acute variceal bleeding: 32.0% vs. 23.7%; and acute kidney injury 30.5% vs. 19.6%. ALC patients had higher Child-Pugh (10.6±2.0 vs. 9.0±2.3), model for end-stage liver-disease scores (21.49±8.47 vs. 16.85±7.79), and higher mortality (42.3% vs. 27.3%, P<0.001) compared to non-ALC.

Conclusions
One-third of cirrhosis patients die in index hospitalization. 60% of the survivors require at least one rehospitalization within a year. ALC patients present with higher morbidity and mortality and at a younger age.

Keyword

Cirrhosis; Ascites; Bleeding; Morbidity; Mortality
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