Neurospine.  2020 Dec;17(4):833-842. 10.14245/ns.2040524.262.

Cervical Deformity: Evaluation, Classification, and Surgical Planning

  • 1Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
  • 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA


Cervical deformity is a challenging condition to treat and requires complex decision-making. Apart from a thorough history and physical examination, a thoughtful and quantitative analysis of multiple imaging modalities is critical for understanding the nature and driver of the cervical deformity. A few classification schemes have emerged, and it is now clear that dynamic films are invaluable as they capture the extension reserve that patients can use to compensate for malalignment. These classification systems can help guide surgical planning, because the various subgroups have different properties that lend themselves to specific treatment paradigms. Here we review the clinical and radiographic evaluation, classification, and surgical planning for cervical deformity.


Cervical deformity; Evaluation; Classification; Surgical planning
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