Neurospine.  2020 Dec;17(4):820-832. 10.14245/ns.2040270.135.

Rehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury: WFNS Spine Committee Recommendations

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Belfast HS Care Trust, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK
  • 2Department of Adaptive Physical Culture and Recreation, Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 3El Bosque University, Bogotá Colombia, Neurosurgery LosCobos Medical Center, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 4Department of Neurosurgery, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey


Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by a significant number of complications associated with damage to the spinal cord, gross functional impairments leading to limited self-care and movement, leading to a high level of disability, social and psychological maladaptation of the patients. Besides, pain and spasticity negatively affect rehabilitation programs. This search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE database. All studies published in English language (n = 16,297) were considered for inclusion. Of all studies evaluating rehabilitation in SCI patients (n = 80) were included. Based on the literature review the faculty of the WFNS Spine Committee created statements covering different aspects of the contemporary rehabilitation process of the SCI patients. The prepared statements were subjected to discussions, followed by anonymous voting process by the members of the WFNS Spine Committee. As result of the diccussions and the voting process the statements were modified and published as recommendations of the WFNS Spine Committee. The care for the SCI has gone a long way from the times after the World War II when these patients were considered hopeless in terms of any functional recovery, to the contemporary comprehensive rehabilitation programs. The rehabilitation is important part of the modern comprehencive treatment of SCI patients nowadays. The current manuscript reflects different aspects of the contemporary rehabilitaton process and decision makings, which were discussed by the faculty of the WFNS Spine Committee resulting in issuing of the following recommendations.


Spinal cord injury; Rehabilitation; Functional electrical stimulation; Spasticity; Pain after spinal cord injury
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