Arch Craniofac Surg.  2020 Dec;21(6):351-356. 10.7181/acfs.2020.00570.

Modified temporalis tendon transfer extended with periosteum for facial paralysis patients

  • 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, Korea


We have devised a novel surgical method, termed as temporalis muscle tendonperiosteum (T-P) compound surgical method, by modifying pre-existing techniques. Our method is characterized by elevation of temporalis muscle tendon and the periosteum of the mandibular ramus as a single compound. Here, we describe the concept and clinical outcomes of our method.
We conducted both a cadaveric study and a clinical study. First, we used four human cadavers (two males and two females) to confirm the anatomy of the temporalis muscle tendon and availability of sufficient length extension through the elevation of the T-P compound. Moreover, we obtained measurements of the mouth angle and the philtrum angle from a total of six patients (two males and four females) and compared them between preoperatively and postoperatively.
The mean length of the periosteal portion was measured as 2.43± 0.15 cm (range, 2.2–2.6 cm). There was an improvement in the mouth angle postoperatively as compared with preoperatively (7.2°± 3.0° vs. 14.5°± 4.7°, respectively). Moreover, there was also an improvement in the philtrum angle postoperatively as compared with preoperatively (7.2°± 3.4° vs. 17.2°± 6.5°, respectively).
Our method is a simple, minimally-invasive modality that is effective in achieving good clinical outcomes. Its advantages include an ability to achieve a firm extension of the temporalis muscle tendon as well as a lack of requirement for a donor site that may cause complications.


Facial paralysis; Periosteum; Tendon transfer
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