Arch Craniofac Surg.  2020 Oct;21(5):276-282. 10.7181/acfs.2020.00409.

Surgical indication analysis according to bony defect size in pediatric orbital wall fractures

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea

Abstract

Background
Orbital fractures are the most common pediatric facial fractures. Treatment is conservative due to the anatomical differences that make children more resilient to severe displacement or orbital volume change than adults. Although rarely, extensive fractures may result in enophthalmos, causing cosmetic problems. We aimed to establish criteria for extensive fractures that may result in enophthalmos.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients aged 0–15 years diagnosed with orbital fractures in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2019. Computed tomography images were used to classify the fractures into linear, trapdoor, and open-door types, and to estimate the defect size. Data on enophthalmos severity (Hertel exophthalmometry results) and fracture pattern and size at the time of injury were obtained from patients who did not undergo surgery during the follow-up and were used to identify the surgical indications for pediatric orbital fractures.
Results
A total of 305 pediatric patients with pure orbital fractures were included–257 males (84.3%), 48 females (15.7%); mean age, 12.01± 2.99 years. The defect size (p= 0.002) and fracture type (p= 0.017) were identified as the variables affecting the enophthalmometric difference between the eyes of non-operated patients. In the linear regression analysis, the variable affecting the fracture size was open-door type fracture (p< 0.001). Pearson’s correlation analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the enophthalmometric difference and the bony defect size (p= 0.003). Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff value of 1.81 cm2 was obtained (sensitivity, 0.543; specificity, 0.724; p= 0.002).
Conclusion
The incidence of enophthalmos in pediatric pure orbital fractures was found to increase with fracture size, with an even higher incidence when open-door type fracture was a cofactor. In clinical settings, pediatric orbital fractures larger than 1.81 cm2 may be considered as extensive fractures that can result in enophthalmos and consequent cosmetic problems.

Keyword

Enophthalmos; Orbital fractures; Pediatrics
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