Investig Magn Reson Imaging.  2020 Sep;24(3):141-153. 10.13104/imri.2020.24.3.141.

Phantom-Validated Reference Values of Myocardial Mapping and Extracellular Volume at 3T in Healthy Koreans

  • 1Department of Radiology, Suwon St. Vincent’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Radiology Department, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Center for Clinical Imaging Data Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea


Myocardial T1 and T2 relaxation times are affected by technical factors such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance platform/vendor. We aimed to validate T1 and T2 mapping sequences using a phantom; establish reference T1, T2, and extracellular volume (ECV) measurements using two sequences at 3T in normal Koreans; and compare the protocols and evaluate the differences from previously reported measurements.
Materials and Methods
Eleven healthy subjects underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 3T MRI equipment (Verio, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). We did phantom validation before volunteer scanning: T1 mapping with modified look locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) with 5(3)3 and 4(1)3(1)2 sequences, and T2 mapping with gradient echo (GRE) and TrueFISP sequences. We did T1 and T2 mappings on the volunteers with the same sequences. ECV was also calculated with both sequences after gadolinium enhancement.
The phantom study showed no significant differences from the gold standard T1 and T2 values in either sequence. Pre-contrast T1 relaxation times of the 4(1)3(1)2 protocol was 1142.27 ± 36.64 ms and of the 5(3)3 was 1266.03 ± 32.86 ms on the volunteer study. T2 relaxation times of GRE were 40.09 ± 2.45 ms and T2 relaxation times of TrueFISP were 38.20 ± 1.64 ms in each. ECV calculation was 24.42% ± 2.41% and 26.11% ± 2.39% in the 4(1)3(1)2 and 5(3)3 protocols, respectively, and showed no differences at any segment or slice between the sequences. We also calculated ECV from the pre-enhancement T1 relaxation time of MOLLI 5(3)3 and the postenhancement T1 relaxation time of MOLLI 4(1)3(1)2, with no significant differences between the combinations.
Using phantom-validated sequences, we reported the normal myocardial T1, T2, and ECV reference values of healthy Koreans at 3T. There were no statistically significant differences between the sequences, although it has limited statistical value due to the small number of subjects studied. ECV showed no significant differences between calculations based on various pre- and post-mapping combinations.


Cardiac MRI; Cardiac mapping; Reference value; ECV; T1 mapping; native T1; T2 mapping
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