Korean J Community Nutr.  2020 Aug;25(4):317-328. 10.5720/kjcn.2020.25.4.317.

Validity of Estimating Sodium Intake using a Mobile Phone Application of 24-hour Dietary Recall with Meal Photos

  • 1Student, Department of Foods & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Professor, Department of Foods & Nutrition, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea


The objective of this study was to verify the validity of a mobile phone application (app) that applies a 24-hour dietary recall with meal photos, as a means of being a more accurate method of estimating dietary sodium intake.
Of the 203 subjects enrolled, 172 subjects (84 males and 88 females) were selected for the final analysis, excluding those with an intake less than 500 kcal and urine output less than 500 ml. Dietary sodium assessment methods used for comparing with the 24-hour urinary sodium excretion are as follows: 1) face-to-face 24-hour dietary recall, 2) 24-hour dietary recall using the mobile app, 3) face-to-face 24-hour dietary recall considering liquid intakes from soup, stew, water kimchi and noodle, etc (liquid-based dishes), 4) 24-hour dietary recall using the mobile app considering liquid intakes from liquid-based dishes, and 5) food frequency questionnaire. Repeated ANOVA with Bonferroni method was used for comparing the average sodium intake, and Pearson’s correlation was applied to correlate the methods used.
In women, no significant difference was observed in the average sodium intake between all methods. Moreover, analysis in men and total adults revealed no significant difference between the 24-hour urinary sodium secretion, and 24-hour dietary recall using the app and 24-hour dietary recall using the app considering liquid intakes. Sodium intake by food frequency questionnaire was significantly different when compared with the intake determined from 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Sodium intake from all methods (except food frequency questionnaire) significantly correlated with values obtained from 24-hour urine sodium excretion.
Results of this study validated a mobile phone app using a 24-hour dietary recall with meal photos to better estimate dietary sodium intakes. It is believed that further studies in the future will enable the application as a tool to more accurately determine sodium intake.


24-hour dietary recall; mobile app; meal photos; sodium intake; validation; 24-hour urine analysis
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