Environ Anal Health Toxicol.  2020 Jun;35(2):e2020009. 10.5620/eaht.e2020009.

Bacterial remediation of heavy metal polluted soil and effluent from paper mill industry

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Environmental Biology, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

Abstract

Bacterial remediation of heavy metal polluted soil and effluent from paper mill was investigated using standard analytical methods. The paper mill was visited for 6 months at interval of 30 days to collect soil and effluent samples for the analysis. The pH of soil was slightly alkaline while effluent was acidic. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in total organic carbon (TOC) of soil; and turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TOC of effluent when compared to control. Bacteria isolated from the samples were grouped into two and used to remediate eight heavy metals. The remediation experiment consists of three treatments; Treatment 1 (treated with proteobacteria), Treatment 2 (treated with non-proteobacteria) and Treatment 3 (without bacteria) (control experiment). Result of the remediation study showed that there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 of all the heavy metals in soil and effluent samples from day 30-180 when compared to day 0. The rate of removal of heavy metals in soil was highest in Treatment 1 for chromium (Cr; 0.00846 day-1) and lowest in Treatment 1 for cadmium (Cd; 0.00403 day-1) while the rate of removal in effluent was highest in Treatment 1 for zinc (Zn; 0.01207 day-1) and lowest in Treatment 1 for Cd (0.00391 day-1). It was concluded that bacteria isolated from soil and effluent samples were capable of remediating the concentration of Pb, arsenic (As), Cr, Zn and nickel (Ni) heavy metals.

Keyword

Remediation; Heavy metals; Soil; Effluent; Proteobacteria; Non-protobacteria; Rate of removal
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