Clin Orthop Surg.  2020 Jun;12(2):245-251. 10.4055/cios19123.

Prevalence of Accessory Bones and Tarsal Coalitions Based on Radiographic Findings in a Healthy, Asymptomatic Population

  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea


Accessory bones and tarsal coalitions are the most common developmental variations of the foot and ankle. However, their clinical implications are not well understood because there is no established prevalence data in the normal population and the reported prevalence varies widely. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence of accessory ossicles and tarsal coalitions in a healthy, asymptomatic Korean population.
A total of 448 healthy, asymptomatic participants (224 men and 224 women; 896 feet) were enrolled and stratified by age and sex. To investigate the presence of accessory bones and tarsal coalitions in the foot and ankle, we obtained the weight-bearing standing radiographs (anteroposterior and lateral views) from each participant.
Accessory ossicles were found in 49.2% of the healthy, asymptomatic Korean adults. The prevalence of accessory bones in adults was the highest with 34% for the accessory navicular, 5.8% for the os trigonum, 3.9% for the os peroneum, and 1.7% for the os subfibulare. The prevalence of tarsal coalitions in adults was 0.4% and that of symphalangism was 16% for the fourth toe and 80.6% for the fifth toe. The frequency of the accessory navicular and fifth toe symphalangism was significantly higher in women. Most of the accessory navicular and fourth and fifth toe symphalangism were bilateral, whereas the os subfibulare was mostly unilateral.
The prevalence of accessory bones and tarsal coalitions in the healthy, asymptomatic Korean population showed some variation according to age and sex.


Os naviculare; Tarsal coalition; Foot bone
Full Text Links
  • CIOS
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
    DB Error: unknown error