World J Mens Health.  2020 Apr;38(2):220-225. 10.5534/wjmh.190028.

Demographics, Usage Patterns, and Safety of Male Users of Clomiphene in the United States

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. eisenberg@stanford.edu
  • 2Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
  • 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to characterize the demographics, usage patterns and complication rates of clomiphene use in male patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We retrospectively analyzed male patients from ages 20 to 55 years old who were prescribed clomiphene citrate from 2001 to 2014 using the Truven Health MarketScan, a US claims database. We collected data regarding associated medical diagnoses, diagnostic testing, duration of use, and reported side effects including thrombotic events, vision problems, gynecomastia, mental disorders, liver disease, nausea, or skin problems.
RESULTS
In total, 12,318 men took clomiphene and represented the primary study cohort, with a mean age of 37.8 years. The percentage of men prescribed clomiphene increased over the study period, as did the average age of clomiphene users. Associated diagnoses included male infertility (52.0%), testicular hypofunction (13.5%), erectile dysfunction (2.4%), and low libido (0.4%). Associated testing included semen analysis (43.7%), testosterone (23.5%), luteinizing hormone (19.3%), and follicle-stimulating hormone (21.1%) levels. The median time of clomiphene use was 3.6 months, with 63% of men stopping within 6 months. No increased risk of reported clomiphene side effects were apparent in men taking the medication.
CONCLUSIONS
There is a rising prevalence of clomiphene usage without associated adverse side effects in the US. The variability in associated diagnoses, diagnostic testing, and duration of use suggest a need for greater awareness of the proper evaluation and treatment of the men who are prescribed clomiphene.

Keyword

Clomiphene; Demography; Infertility, male; Safety

MeSH Terms

Clomiphene*
Cohort Studies
Demography*
Diagnosis
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Erectile Dysfunction
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Gynecomastia
Humans
Infertility, Male
Libido
Liver Diseases
Luteinizing Hormone
Male*
Mental Disorders
Nausea
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Semen Analysis
Skin
Testosterone
United States*
Clomiphene
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Luteinizing Hormone
Testosterone
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