J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.  2020 Mar;61(3):274-280. 10.3341/jkos.2020.61.3.274.

Availability of Cycloplegic Refraction in Children and Adolescents

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea. yclee@cmcnu.or.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
To compare non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractive errors and evaluate the utility of cycloplegia in Korean children and young adolescents.
METHODS
An anterospective study including 406 outpatients was conducted from September 2015 to December 2017. Pre and post-cycloplegic refractive errors for both eyes were measured using Ocucyclo® and Mydrin P® with an auto-refractor. Patients were divided into different groups according to age: group 1 (< 4 years), group 2 (4-6 years), group 3 (6-8 years), group 4 (8-10 years) and group 5 (< 20 years).
RESULTS
A total of 203 patients were studied. Standard deviation (sphere post-pre) was 1.26 ± 1.02 diopters significant in all age groups (p < 0.05). The mean difference decreased with increasing age (r = 0.207, p < 0.05), however, 9% of group with age greater than 10 years old still had manifest refraction-cycloplegic refraction (MR-CR) difference greater than 2 diopters. There were no significant cylindrical or axial component value difference before and after cycloplegia (p = 0.071). Significantly greater MR-CR differences were observed in hypermetropes ≥ 6 years old and myopes ≤8 years old (p < 0.05). The prevalence of pre-cycloplegic eyes with anisometria was 22.6% and 32.6%, a total of 7.39% regressed after cycloplegia (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
After CR hyperopic shift was observed in all age groups. In patients with age greater than 10 years old, although statistically not significant, anisometropia and pseudomyopia still existed. Thus cycloplegic refraction should be performed in young adolescent to precisely measure and correct refractive error and avoid overcorrection.

Keyword

Cycloplegic refraction; Refractive errors

MeSH Terms

Adolescent*
Anisometropia
Child*
Humans
Outpatients
Prevalence
Refractive Errors
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