Clin Nutr Res.  2020 Jan;9(1):52-62. 10.7762/cnr.2020.9.1.52.

The Association between Maternal Dietary Iron Intake during the First Trimester of Pregnancy with Pregnancy Outcomes and Pregnancy-Related Complications

Affiliations
  • 1Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran. hossein.hajian2009@gmail.com
  • 2Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.
  • 3Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran.
  • 4Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.
  • 5Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14167-53955, Iran.
  • 6Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14167-53955, Iran.
  • 7Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran. arman4369@gmail.com
  • 8Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the associations of maternal dietary iron intake during the first trimester of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes and related complications in pregnant women of Isfahan, Iran. In this prospective study, 812 healthy first-trimester singleton pregnant women were selected randomly from 20 various health centers across Isfahan city during 2015-2016. The maternal dietary iron classified into 2 groups, including heme and non-heme iron. Factors including pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy considered as the pregnancy-related complications. Infant's birth weight, birth height, and birth head circumference were also determined as the pregnancy-outcomes. There was a significant association between total iron consumption and infant head circumference (p = 0.01). Total maternal iron (the sum of heme and non-heme iron) was negatively associated with both infant's birth height (p = 0.006) and birth weight (p = 0.02). Non-heme iron consumption is positively associated with high-risk of IUGR (p = 0.004). Heme intake was associated with an increased risk of maternal fasting blood sugar (FBS) (p = 0.04). Higher heme, non-heme, and total iron intake were associated with lower risk of pre-eclampsia (heme: crude p = 0.05; non-heme iron: adjusted p = 0.02; total iron: adjusted p = 0.05). Maternal total iron intake was directly associated with infant head circumference, whereas, negatively associated with both birth weight and birth height. High non-heme iron intake may increase the risk of IUGR, and a high intake of heme iron may increase FBS.

Keyword

Dietary iron; Pregnancy outcome; Heme

MeSH Terms

Birth Weight
Blood Glucose
Diabetes, Gestational
Fasting
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation
Head
Heme
Humans
Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced
Infant
Iran
Iron
Iron, Dietary*
Nausea
Parturition
Pre-Eclampsia
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome*
Pregnancy Trimester, First*
Pregnancy*
Pregnant Women
Prospective Studies
Vomiting
Blood Glucose
Heme
Iron
Iron, Dietary
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