Yonsei Med J.  2016 Jan;57(1):265-268. 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.1.265.

The Role of Virtual Surgical Planning in the Era of Robotic Surgery

  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea. omsnam@yuhs.ac
  • 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. eunchangmd@yuhs.ac
  • 3Oral Cancer Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.


Among various surgical methods introduced to optimize esthetic results, robotic surgery has gradually expanded in scope. As incision, approach, and operation view in robotic surgery differ from existing surgical methods, we should consider reconstruction from a different perspective. We recently experienced two mandibular reconstruction cases after tumor ablative surgery with robotic neck dissection using the conventional reconstruction method and virtual surgical planning (VSP), respectively. We found that the conventional reconstruction method is inappropriate in modified facelift incision in robotic neck dissection because it provides limited surgical scope, restricts access to the defect area, and therefore, consumes considerable time before anastomosis. For these reasons, the authors consider VSP far more viable in the era of robotic surgery.


Rhytidoplasty; mandibular reconstruction; microsurgery; virtual surgical planning

MeSH Terms

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiography/*surgery
Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Mandibular Osteotomy/*methods
Mandibular Reconstruction/*methods
Neck Dissection/methods
Robotic Surgical Procedures/*methods
Treatment Outcome


  • Fig. 1 Appliances for virtual surgical planning.

  • Fig. 2 Post-operative imaging study. (A) Immediate postoperative 3-dimensional image operated with virtual surgical planning showing symmetrically reconstructed mandible. (B) Five-month follow-up panoramic view operated with virtual surgical planning showing well remodeled grafted bone. (C) Seven-month follow-up panoramic view operated without virtual surgical planning showing necrosis of grafted bone.


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