Radiat Oncol J.  2019 Sep;37(3):193-200. 10.3857/roj.2019.00066.

The role of salvage radiotherapy in recurrent thymoma

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. JJHMD@yuhs.ac

Abstract

PURPOSE
To explore the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for recurrent thymoma as an alternative to surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Between 2007 and 2015, 47 patients who received salvage RT for recurrent thymoma at Yonsei Cancer Center were included in this study. Recurrent sites included initial tumor bed (n = 4), pleura (n = 19), lung parenchyma (n = 10), distant (n = 9), and multiple regions (n = 5). Three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated RT were used in 29 and 18 patients, respectively. Median prescribed dose to gross tumor was 52 Gy (range, 30 to 70 Gy), with equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQDâ‚‚). We investigated overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and patterns of failure. Local failure after salvage RT was defined as recurrence at the target volume receiving >50% of the prescription dose.
RESULTS
Median follow-up time was 83 months (range, 8 to 299 months). Five-year OS and PFS were 70% and 22%, respectively. The overall response rate was 97.9%; complete response, 34%; partial response, 44.7%; and stable disease, 19.1%. In multivariate analysis, histologic type and salvage RT dose (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) were significantly associated with OS. The high dose group (≥52 Gy, EQD₂) had significantly better outcomes than the low dose group (5-year OS: 80% vs. 59%, p = 0.046; 5-year PFS: 30% vs. 14%, p=0.002). Treatment failure occurred in 34 patients; out-of-field failure was dominant (intra-thoracic recurrence 35.3%; extrathoracic recurrence 11.8%), while local failure rate was 5.8%.
CONCLUSION
Salvage RT for recurrent thymoma using high doses and advanced precision techniques produced favorable outcomes, providing evidence that recurrent thymoma is radiosensitive.

Keyword

Thymoma; Radiotherapy; Survival; Recurrence

MeSH Terms

Disease-Free Survival
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung
Multivariate Analysis
Pleura
Prescriptions
Radiotherapy*
Recurrence
Thymoma*
Treatment Failure
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