J Adv Prosthodont.  2019 Aug;11(4):202-208. 10.4047/jap.2019.11.4.202.

Influence of heating rate on the flexural strength of monolithic zirconia

  • 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey. caner_ozturk86@hotmail.com
  • 2Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.


Fabrication of zirconia restorations with ideal mechanical properties in a short period is a great challenge for clinicians. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of heating rate on the mechanical and microstructural properties of monolithic zirconia.
Forty monolithic zirconia specimens were prepared from presintered monolithic zirconia blanks. All specimens were then assigned to 4 groups according to heating rate as Control, Group 15℃, Group 20℃, and Group 40℃. All groups were sintered according to heating rates with the sintering temperature of 1500℃, a holding time of 90 minutes and natural cooling. The phase composition was examined by XRD analysis, three-point bending test was conducted to examine the flexural strength, and Weibull analysis was conducted to determine weibull modulus and characteristic strength. Average grain sizes were determined by SEM analysis. One-way ANOVA test was performed at a significance level of 0.05.
Only tetragonal phase characteristic peaks were determined on the surface of analyzed specimens. Differences among the average grain sizes of the groups were not statistically significant. The results of the three-point bending test revealed no significant differences among the flexural strength of the groups (P>.05). Weibull modulus of groups was ranging from 3.50 to 4.74. The highest and the lowest characteristic strength values were obtained in Group 20℃ and Control Group, respectively.
Heating rate has no significant effect on the flexural strength of monolithic zirconia. Monolithic zirconia restorations can be produced in shorter sintering periods without affecting the flexural strength by modifying the heating rate.


Heating rate; Monolithic zirconia; Sintering parameters

MeSH Terms

Hot Temperature*


  • Fig. 1 The schematic view of the study set-up.

  • Fig. 2 XRD diffractograms of Groups; (A) Control Group, (B) Group 15℃, (C) Group 20℃ and (D) Group 40℃. (t) indicates the tetragonal characteristic peaks.

  • Fig. 3 SEM image of Groups; (A) Control Group, (B) Group 15℃, (C) Group 20℃ and (D) Group 40℃.

  • Fig. 4 Weibull analysis plot of groups.

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