Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol.  2019 Feb;12(1):12-17. 10.21053/ceo.2018.00906.

Virtual Reality Simulators for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: The Present and Future

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. kswent@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeries are minimally invasive surgical techniques that reduce postoperative symptoms and complications and enhance patients' quality of life. However, to ensure excellent surgical outcomes after such interventions, intimate familiarity with important landmarks and high-level endoscope manipulation skills are essential. Cadaver training is one possible option, but cadavers are expensive, scarce, and nonreusable and cadaver work requires specialized equipment and staff. In addition, it is difficult to mimic specific diseases using cadavers. Virtual reality simulators can create a computerized environment in which the patient's anatomy is reproduced and interaction with endoscopic handling and realistic haptic feedback is possible. Moreover, they can be used to present scenarios that improve trainees' skills and confidence. Therefore, virtual simulator training can be implemented at all levels of surgical education. This review introduces the current literature on virtual reality training for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgeons, and discusses the direction of future developments.

Keyword

Virtual Reality; Endoscopy; Paranasal Sinuses; Skull Base

MeSH Terms

Cadaver
Education
Endoscopes
Endoscopy
Paranasal Sinuses
Quality of Life
Recognition (Psychology)
Skull Base*
Skull*
Surgeons
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