J Korean Orthop Assoc.  1996 Oct;31(5):1042-1047. 10.4055/jkoa.1996.31.5.1042.

Hallux Valgus Angle in Ballet, Mordern and Trditional Dancers


Various etiologies of hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus have been reported, but still they are not conclusively established. Furthermore, between hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus, the question is unanswered as to which is the cause and which is the result. To determine the primary cause and attribution of high heeled position to hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus, we selected three different types of dancer. Traditional dancers wear cotton sox and strike the heels first to move, modern dancers walk or run and jump on naked feet, and ballerinas stand, walk or jump on their toes with hard wooden shoes, so the latter two types of dancers move with extremely high-heeled position. We analyzed the plain AP roentgenography of 84 feet for 16 ballerinas, 13 modern and 13 traditional dancers. The results were as follows : 1. First metatarsalgia was noted in 38% of modern dancers and 43% of ballerinas but none in traditional dancers. 2. The mean hallux valgus angle was 13.6°±2.7° in traditional dancers, 13.5°±3.8° in modern dancers, 18°±3.3° in ballerinas which are statistically significant between ballerinas and modern, traditional dancers(P < 0.01). 3. The mean intermetatarsal angle was 10.5°±1.4° in traditional dancers, 10.6°±1.1° in modern dancers, 10.8°±1.5° in ballerinas, and metatarsus primus varus angle was 17.6 °±5.1°, 18.3°±2.7°, 19.4°±3.6°, respectively, which were all statistically insignificant(P>0.01). Therefore, it is concluded that medio-lateral compression of shoes may be the principal contributor for the hallux valgus rather than high heel, and hallux valgus is the primary deformity.


Cause; Hallux Valgus; Dancers

MeSH Terms

Congenital Abnormalities
Hallux Valgus*
Strikes, Employee
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