J Korean Dent Sci.  2016 Jun;9(1):19-27. 10.5856/JKDS.2016.9.1.19.

The Effects of a Er:YAG Laser on Machined, Sand-Blasted and Acid-Etched, and Resorbable Blast Media Titanium Surfaces Using Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Periodontics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea. ko_y@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Kim & Jeon Dental Clinic, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Laser treatment has become a popular method in implant dentistry, and lasers have been used for the decontamination of implant surfaces when treating peri-implantitis. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of an Erbium-doped:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Er:YAG) laser with different settings on machined (MA), sand-blasted and acid-etched (SA), and resorbable blast media (RBM) titanium surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Four MA, four SA, and four RBM discs were either irradiated at 40 mJ/20 Hz, 90 mJ/20 Hz, or 40 mJ/25 Hz for 2 minutes. The specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULT: Four MA, four SA, and four RBM discs were either irradiated at 40 mJ/20 Hz, 90 mJ/20 Hz, or 40 mJ/25 Hz for 2 minutes. The specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Result: The untreated MA surface demonstrated uniform roughness with circumferential machining marks, and depressions were observed after laser treatment. The untreated SA surface demonstrated a rough surface with sharp spikes and deep pits, and the laser produced noticeable changes on the SA titanium surfaces with melting and fusion. The untreated RBM surface demonstrated a rough surface with irregular indentation, and treatment with the laser produced changes on the RBM titanium surfaces. The Er:YAG laser produced significant changes on the roughness parameters, including arithmetic mean height of the surface (Sa) and maximum height of the surface (Sz), of the MA and SA surfaces. However, the Er:YAG laser did not produce notable changes on the roughness parameters, such as Sa and Sz, of the RBM surfaces.
CONCLUSION
This study evaluated the effects of an Er:YAG laser on MA, SA, and RBM titanium discs using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment with the laser produced significant changes in the roughness of MA and SA surfaces, but the roughness parameters of the RBM discs were not significantly changed. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficiency of the Er:YAG laser in removing the contaminants, adhering bacteria, and the effects of treatment on cellular attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

Keyword

Decontamination; Lasers, Er-YAG; Peri-implantitis; Surface properties

MeSH Terms

Bacteria
Decontamination
Dentistry
Depression
Freezing
Lasers, Solid-State
Methods
Microscopy, Confocal*
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning*
Peri-Implantitis
Surface Properties
Titanium*
Titanium
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