Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg.  2015 Nov;37(11):43. 10.1186/s40902-015-0037-x.

Image-guided surgery and craniofacial applications: mastering the unseen

  • 1School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX USA.
  • 2Department of Surgery, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX USA.
  • 3Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Pediatrics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX USA.
  • 4Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street STOP 8312, Lubbock, TX 79430 USA.


Image-guided surgery potentially enhances intraoperative safety and outcomes in a variety of craniomaxillofacial procedures. We explore the efficiency of one intraoperative navigation system in a single complex craniofacial case, review the initial and recurring costs, and estimate the added cost (e.g., additional setup time, registration). We discuss the potential challenges and benefits of utilizing image-guided surgery in our specific case and its benefits in terms of educational and teaching purposes and compare this with traditional osteotomies that rely on a surgeon's thorough understanding of anatomy coupled with tactile feedback to blindly guide the osteotome during surgery. A 13-year-old presented with untreated syndromic multi-suture synostosis, brachycephaly, severe exorbitism, and midface hypoplasia. For now, initial costs are high, recurring costs are relatively low, and there are perceived benefits of imaged-guided surgery as an excellent teaching tool for visualizing difficult and often unseen anatomy through computerized software and multi-planar real-time images.

MeSH Terms

Surgery, Computer-Assisted*
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