Asian Nurs Res.  2017 Mar;11(1):19-29. 10.1016/j.anr.2017.01.004.

Concept Development of “Nursing Presence”: Application of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's Hybrid Model

  • 1School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.
  • 3Department of Nursing Management, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 4Nursing & Midwifery School, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 5Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Although nursing presence is a foundation for professional nursing practice and has known positive outcomes such as patient satisfaction and recovery; it is not well known. The ambiguity surrounding how to define nursing presence has challenged its evaluation and education. Therefore, in an attempt to discover attributes of this underdeveloped concept and studying it in a new context, concept development is essential. The purpose of this study was to clarify the concept of nursing presence through concept development, to produce a tentative definition of this subjective concept in clinical practice.
Concept development was carried out using Schwartz-Barcott and Kim's hybrid model including, theoretical, fieldwork and final analysis phases. First, 29 related articles available on the databases from 1990-2015 were reviewed and analyzed. Then, 22 interviews were conducted with 19 participants, followed with inductive content analysis. At last, an overall definition was performed.
Nursing presence can be explained as co-constructed interaction identified by deliberate focus, task-oriented/patient-oriented relationship, accountability, clarification, and ubiquitous participation. Nursing presence requires clinical competence, self-actualization, reciprocating openness, and conducive working environment. Worthwhile communications, balance/recovery, and growth and transcendence are the main consequences of this concept.
Co-constructed interaction underscored the value of the nursing presence as an integral component of caring with humanistic and patient-centered approaches. The findings could help clinical nurses have a better understanding of the nursing presence. Findings also can improve educators' and managers' knowledge for developing and conducting appropriate education strategies and caring activities to facilitate the promotion of nursing presence.


Qualitative Research; Nurse-Patient Relations; Humanism; Patient Satisfaction

MeSH Terms

Clinical Competence
Nurse-Patient Relations
Patient Satisfaction
Qualitative Research
Social Responsibility
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