J Korean Acad Nurs.  2015 Oct;45(5):641-649. 10.4040/jkan.2015.45.5.641.

A Review on the Use of Effect Size in Nursing Research

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Applied Statistics, Hoseo University, Asan, Korea. sthan@hoseo.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to introduce the main concepts of statistical testing and effect size and to provide researchers in nursing science with guidance on how to calculate the effect size for the statistical analysis methods mainly used in nursing.
METHODS
For t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis which are used frequently in nursing research, the generally accepted definitions of the effect size were explained.
RESULTS
Some formulae for calculating the effect size are described with several examples in nursing research. Furthermore, the authors present the required minimum sample size for each example utilizing G*Power 3 software that is the most widely used program for calculating sample size.
CONCLUSION
It is noted that statistical significance testing and effect size measurement serve different purposes, and the reliance on only one side may be misleading. Some practical guidelines are recommended for combining statistical significance testing and effect size measure in order to make more balanced decisions in quantitative analyses.

Keyword

Effect size; Significance probability; Power of test; Statistical significance; Practical significance

MeSH Terms

*Data Interpretation, Statistical
Humans
Nursing Research/*methods
Research Design
Sample Size
Software
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