Arch Craniofac Surg.  2016 Sep;17(3):128-134. 10.7181/acfs.2016.17.3.128.

Ocular Complications in Assault-Related Blowout Fracture

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. s2639@paik.ac.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Blowout fracture is one of the most common facial fractures, and patients usually present with accompanying ocular complications. Many studies have looked into the frequency of persistent ocular symptoms, but there is no study on assault patients and related ocular symptoms. We evaluated the incidence of residual ocular symptoms in blow-out fractures between assaulted and non-assaulted patients, and sought to identify any connection among the degree of enophthalmos, defect size, and assault-related injury.
METHODS
A retrospective review was performed for any patient who sustained a unilateral blowout fracture between January 2010 to December 2014. The collected data included information such as age, gender, etiology, and clinical ocular symptoms as examined by an ophthalmologist. This data was analyzed between patients who were injured through physical altercation and patients who were injured through other means.
RESULTS
The review identified a total of 182 patients. Out of these, 74 patients (40.7%) have been struck by a fist, whereas 108 patients (59.3%) have sustained non-assault related injuries. The average age was 36.1 years, and there was a male predominance in both groups (70 patients [94.6%] in the assaulted group and 87 patients [80.6%] in the non-assault group). Diplopia and enophthalmos were more frequent in patients with assault history than in non-assaulted patients (p <0.05). Preoperatively, 25 patients (33.8%) with assault history showed diplopia, whereas 20 patients (18.5%) showed diplopia in the non-assaulted group (p <0.05). Preoperative enophthalmos was present in 34 patients (45.9%) with assault history, whereas 31 patients (28.7%) showed enophthalmos in the non-assaulted group (p <0.05).
CONCLUSION
Patients with an assault history due to a fist blow experienced preoperative symptoms more frequently than did patients with non-assault-related trauma history. Preoperative diplopia and enophthalmos occurred at a higher rate for patients who were assaulted. Surgeons should take into account such characteristics in the management of assaulted patients.

Keyword

Orbital fractures; Diplopia; Enophthalmos; Violence

MeSH Terms

Diplopia
Enophthalmos
Humans
Incidence
Male
Orbital Fractures
Retrospective Studies
Surgeons
Violence
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