J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc.  2015 Feb;54(1):97-104. 10.4306/jknpa.2015.54.1.97.

A Study on Reliability and Validity of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-North Korea (IES-R-NK)

  • 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Keyo Medical Foundation Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Korea.
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, National Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. psyhee@hanmail.net
  • 3Department of Psychiatry, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 5Settlement Support Center for Dislocated North Koreans, Ministry of Unification, Seoul, Korea.
  • 6Saejowi, Seoul, Korea.


This study was conducted to translate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) into North Korean language and confirm its reliability and validity.
A total of 207 North Korean defectors recruited from the Call Center for North Korean Defectors participated in this study. Psychiatrists and psychiatric residents interviewed the participants individually and made psychiatric diagnosis. Subsequently, they completed the Brief Psychological State Inventory for North Korean Refugees (BPSI-NKR), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-North Korea (CES-D-NK), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-North Korea (AUDIT-NK) as well as the Impact of Event Scale-Revised-North Korea (IES-R-NK). Of the original participants, 143 subjects participated in test-retest reliability study after one week.
The internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha was superior in both male and female from North Korea. In addition, the temporal stability was also satisfactory. A good convergent validity was clearly shown by significant correlations with BPSI-PTSD and CES-D-NK, respectively. On the other hand, IES-R-NK had no or weak correlations with AUDIT-NK and BPSI-NKR-alcohol, demonstrating its satisfactory discriminant validity.
IES-R-NK might be considered as a short and valid screening tool for identification of PTSD symptoms in North Korean defectors.


PTSD; IES-R; North korean defectors; Reliability; Validity
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