J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc.  2014 Jul;53(4):246-253.

The Influence of Parent and Peer Attachment in Adolescent's Suicidal Ideation: Mediating Effect of Depression and Anxiety

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jesus Hospital, Jeonju, Korea. psynrdr@hanmail.net


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among parent attachment, peer attachment, depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation of adolescents and the mediating effect of depression and anxiety in these relationships.
This study targeted 916 middle and high schools students in three different cities. They completed a self-report questionnaire.
Parental attachment showed a highly positive correlation with peer attachment while parental attachment and peer attachment showed a highly negative correlation with depression and anxiety. In addition, parental attachment and peer attachment showed a highly negative correlation with suicidal ideation while depression and anxiety showed a highly positive correlation with suicidal ideation. Parental attachment, not only directly, but also indirectly, affects suicidal ideation with mediation of depression and anxiety, indicating that the more secure the level of attachment, the lower the occurrence of depression and anxiety are, which, as a result, can lower suicidal ideation tendency.
Parent attachment and peer attachment have a direct and indirect effect on suicidal ideation with the mediation of depression and anxiety, which plays a crucial role in suicidal ideation of adolescents.


Parent attachment; Peer attachment; Depression; Anxiety; Suicidal ideation

MeSH Terms

Surveys and Questionnaires
Suicidal Ideation*


  • Fig. 1 The analysis result of the structural equation model. *: p<0.001.


1. Statistics Korea. 2010 Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics. Daejeon: Statistics Korea;2011.
2. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. OECD Health data. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development;2012.
3. Statistics Korea. 2011 Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics. Seoul: Statistics Korea;2012.
4. Yongin Mental Hospital Health Promotion Project Support Group. Model of case management for suicide high risk groups. Yongin: Yongin Mental Hospital;2009.
5. Ministry of Health & Welfare. 5-Year Comprehensive Plan for Suicide Prevention. Sejong: Ministry of Health & Welfare;2005.
6. Fiske H. Hope in action: Solution-Focused Conversations about Suicide. New York: Routledge;2008.
7. Kim SA. Effects of childhood stress, depression, and social support on middle school adolescent suicidal ideation. Korean J Fam Welf. 2009; 14:5–27.
8. Berman AL, Jobes DA. Suicide prevention in adolescents (age 12-18). Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1995; 25:143–154.
9. Kumar G, Steer RA. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1995; 25:339–346.
10. Simons RL, Murphy PI. Sex differences in the causes of adolescent suicide ideation. J Youth Adolesc. 1985; 14:423–434.
11. Chong YJ, Chong YS. Relationships between depression, cognitive deconstruction, perceived support from friend and suicidal ideation in adolescents. Korean J Dev Psychol. 2007; 20:67–88.
12. Lee JS. The influence of mother and peer attachment on adolescent's depression [dissertation]. Seoul: Ewha Womans University;2006.
13. Lewinsohn PM, Rohde P, Seeley JR. Psychosocial risk factors for future adolescent suicide attempts. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994; 62:297–305.
14. Kwon TY. Identifying latent classes in adolescents' suicide ideation changes and testing ecological factors as determinants of classes. Ment Health Soc Work. 2012; 40:89–118.
15. Andrews JA, Lewinsohn PM. Suicidal attempts among older adolescents: prevalence and co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992; 31:655–662.
16. Brent DA, Kalas R, Edelbrock C, Costello AJ, Dulcan MK, Conover N. Psychopathology and its relationship to suicidal ideation in childhood and adolescence. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1986; 25:666–673.
17. Boden JM, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Anxiety disorders and suicidal behaviours in adolescence and young adulthood: findings from a longitudinal study. Psychol Med. 2007; 37:431–440.
18. Carlson GA, Cantwell DP. Suicidal behavior and depression in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry. 1982; 21:361–368.
19. Kim HS. The effects of depression and impulsivity on suicidal ideation [dissertation]. Daegu: Catholic University of Daegu;2011.
20. Bowlby J. The Making & Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London: Tavistock Publications;1979.
21. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss, Volume I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books;1969.
22. Rothbard JC, Shaver PR. Continuity of attachment across the life span. In : Sperling MB, Berman WH, editors. Attachment in Adults: Clinical and Developmental Perspectives. New York: Guilford;1994. p. 31–71.
23. Allen JP, Land D. Attachment in adolescence. In : Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. New York: Guilford Press;1999. p. 319–335.
24. Holmes J. John Bowlby and Attachment Theory. London: Routledge;1993.
25. Hollis C. Depression, family environment, and adolescent suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996; 35:622–630.
26. DiFilippo JM, Overholser JC. Suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients as associated with depression and attachment relationships. J Clin Child Psychol. 2000; 29:155–166.
27. Armsden GC, Greenberg MT. The inventory of parent and peer attachment: individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 1987; 16:427–454.
28. Yoo SK, Park SL, Hwang MH. Validation of Korea inventory of parent and peer attachment. Korean J Elementary Couns. 2010; 9:21–39.
29. Kovacs M. Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatr. 1981; 46:305–315.
30. Han EG. Children's and adolescents' depression, attributional style and academic achievement [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University;1993.
31. Kwon SM, Oei TPS. Differential causal roles of Dysfunctional Attitudes and Automatic Thoughts in depression. Cogn Ther Res. 1992; 16:309–328.
32. Beck AT, Kovacs M, Weissman A. Assessment of suicidal intention: the Scale for Suicide Ideation. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1979; 47:343–352.
33. Shin MS, Park KB, Oh KJ, Kim ZS. A study of suicidal ideation among high school students: the structural relation among depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. Korean J Clin Psychol. 1990; 9:1–19.
34. Hong S. The criteria for selecting appropriate fit indices in structural equation modeling and their rationales. Korean J Clin Psychol. 2000; 19:161–177.
35. Strang SP, Orlofsky JL. Factors underlying suicidal ideation among college students: a test of Teicher and Jacobs' model. J Adolesc. 1990; 13:39–52.
36. Choi SJ. The parent attachment and suicide ideation: mediating effects of dysfunctional beliefs, depression [dissertaion]. Daegu: Kyungpook National University;2008.
37. Adams DM, Overholser JC, Lehnert KL. Perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994; 33:498–507.
38. Bowlby J. A secure base: parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books;1988.
39. Kopper BA, Osman A, Osman JR, Hoffman J. Clinical utility of the MMPI-A content scales and Harris-Lingoes subscales in the assessment of suicidal risk factors in psychiatric adolescents. J Clin Psychol. 1998; 54:191–200.
40. Fergusson DM, Beautrais AL, Horwood LJ. Vulnerability and resiliency to suicidal behaviours in young people. Psychol Med. 2003; 33:61–73.
41. Rubenstein JL, Halton A, Kasten L, Rubin C, Stechler G. Suicidal behavior in adolescents: stress and protection in different family contexts. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1998; 68:274–284.
42. Prinstein MJ, Boergers J, Spirito A, Little TD, Grapentine WL. Peer functioning, family dysfunction, and psychological symptoms in a risk factor model for adolescent inpatients' suicidal ideation severity. J Clin Child Psychol. 2000; 29:392–405.
43. Kandel DB, Raveis VH, Davies M. Suicidal ideation in adolescence: depression, substance use, and other risk factors. J Youth Adolesc. 1991; 20:289–309.
44. Melhem NM, Brent DA, Ziegler M, Iyengar S, Kolko D, Oquendo M, et al. Familial pathways to early-onset suicidal behavior: familial and individual antecedents of suicidal behavior. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164:1364–1370.
45. Nrugham L, Larsson B, Sund AM. Predictors of suicidal acts across adolescence: influences of familial, peer and individual factors. J Affect Disord. 2008; 109:35–45.
46. Goldston DB, Daniel SS, Erkanli A, Reboussin BA, Mayfield A, Frazier PH, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses as contemporaneous risk factors for suicide attempts among adolescents and young adults: developmental changes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009; 77:281–290.
47. Kwon EH. A study on factors influencing the suicide ideation of juveniles-focused on psychosocial factors [dissertation]. Iksan: Wonkwang University;2009.
Full Text Links
  • JKNA
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2023 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr