J Korean Ophthalmol Soc.  2016 Mar;57(3):485-491. 10.3341/jkos.2016.57.3.485.

Quality of Life and Visual Efficiency: fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea. bswhitey@hanmail.net


To analyze the association of visual efficiency and quality of life using data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V).
The present study included 5,244 glaucoma or glaucoma suspect subjects who completed a visual acuity test, visual field test and health-related questionnaire from the KNHANES V. Visual efficiency was calculated using best corrected visual acuity and visual field test. Quality of life was assessed with EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D). Visual efficiency was compared with best corrected vision of the better eye to evaluate the relationship with quality of life. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and partial correlations analysis were used to analyze the associations between factors.
Both visual efficiency and best corrected visual acuity of the better eye were significantly different with all EQ-5D parameters (p < 0.005). After controlling for age, gender, income, education, spouse and house ownership, visual efficiency showed a positive correlation coefficient of +0.040 (p = 0.006) with the quality of life and the best corrected visual acuity of the better eye showed negative correlation coefficient of -0.044 (p = 0.002) with the quality of life.
Visual efficiency was associated with the quality of life. Not only visual acuity but also visual efficiency would be a valuable parameter when considering the quality of life. Further studies are needed to evaluate non-glaucomatous populations.


EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D); Quality of life; The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V); Visual acuity; Visual efficiency

MeSH Terms

Nutrition Surveys*
Quality of Life*
Visual Acuity
Visual Field Tests


  • Figure 1. Mean visual efficiency and best corrected visual acuity on EQ −5D questionnaire and scatter plot between visual efficiency and best corrected visual acuity of the better eye. (A) Mobility. (B) Self-care. (C) Usual activities. (D) Anxiety/depression. (E) Pain discomfort. (F) Scatter plot. ‘1’ means no problem in performance, ‘2’ means mild disability or disturbance, and ‘3’ means moderate to severe disability or disturbance. EQ −5D = EuroQoL 5D. *Statistically significant, left scale is visual efficiency in percentage, right scale is log MAR of best corrected visual acuity of the better eye.

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