J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg.  1999 Oct;25(4):281-294.

Histomorphologic change and Regeneration of the Adventitia-stripped and frozen Rat Femoral Artery: Histologic, Histomorphometric, Immunohistochemical and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University.
  • 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University.


Vasospasm causes microvascular surgery to fail as a main factor in the loss of transferred flap dye to the diminution of blood flow in reconstruction surgery. Although there has been extensive research to resolve the vasospasm problem, no one has reached an ideal solution to date. However, cryotherapy, which is often used for destruction of tumor lesions, is being presented as a new way of releasing vasospasm. After making a histomorphometric measurement on vasodialation during the course of 1, 3 and 7 days, 2 and 4 weeks, and 5 months periods and observing the change of blood vessel in a histologic, immunohistochemical, and scanning electronic microscopic approach, the results were as follows: 1. Vascular inner diameters of the experimental 1 and 3 days groups were measured 476.3+/-28.20micrometer, 497.15+/-48.79micrometer repectively showing statistically meaningful vasodilation(P<0.05), which continued by the experiment 4 weeks group. However, in the experimental 5 months group, the vascular inner diameter appeared similar to the control groups. Even though the thickness of smooth muscular layers come out to be thinner in all the experimental groups compared to the control group, it was difficult to find any statistical meaningfulness. In addition, the vascular external diameters of every experimental groups were shown to be longer than the control group. 2. In light microscopic view, severe injury was evident on the smooth muscular layer cell from the experimental 1 day group, started recovering partially from the experimental 7 days group, and was mostly restored in the experimental 4 weeks group and layer of adventitial stripping were nearly recoverd 2 weeks group. 3. The PCNA positive cells of smooth muscular layer were observed from the experimental 7 days group and had a tendency to increase by the experimental 2 weeks group. In the experimental 4 weeks and 5 months group, the number of PCNA possitive cells observed was comparable to the control group. 4. alpa-SMA level of smooth muscular layer cells, having been significantly lower than the control group in the severly damaged experimental 1 day group. It was seen to be increased in the experimental 7 days group and turned out to show similar alpa-SMA level in 4 weeks to the control group. 5. In the view of SEM, the endothelial cells were destructed and falling off, and also present the appearance of flattening in the experiment 1 day group. The endothelial layer cells started partially recovering from the 7 days group after the freezing injury. On 4 weeks and 5 months, the endothelial cells were fully coverd the damaged area, also it's appearance is similar to control group. In conclusion, the vascular freezing after the removal of adventitia caused damages to smooth muscular layer cells, and brought about vasodilation, which continued by the 4th week. The smooth muscular layer cells started partially reviving from the 7rd day after the damage by vascular freezing, and recovered their similar figure to the control group's 4 weeks later. This was considered the result of cells which surround the damaged blood vessel being influxed into the smooth muscular layers. Therefore, this local freezing injury on the blood vessel was thought to be applied clinically to relieve severe vasospasm which cannot be treated by vasodilation drug, a microvascular surgery.

MeSH Terms

Blood Vessels
Endothelial Cells
Femoral Artery*
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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