Brain Neurorehabil.  2015 Mar;8(1):29-33. 10.12786/bn.2015.8.1.29.

Cognitive Rehabilitation of Dementia

  • 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Gachon University School of Medicine, Korea.


Cognitive rehabilitation refers to the cognition-based approaches that aim to induce people with cognitive impairment to achieve or maintain an optimal level of psychological and social functioning. Many models and definitions of cognitive rehabilitation exist. In this review, cognitive rehabilitation would be briefly reviewed as three categories; cognitive stimulation, cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation. Cognitive stimulation is a range of group activities and discussions targeting general enhancement of cognitive and social functioning. Cognitive training is guided practice of standardized cognitive task-sets according to the individual levels. Cognitive rehabilitation is an individual approach using rehabilitation strategy for cognitively disabled person. Goal-setting is essential and emphasis is on improving performance in everyday life.


cognitive therapy; dementia; rehabilitation

MeSH Terms

Cognitive Therapy
Disabled Persons


1. Mowszowski L, Batchelor J, Naismith SL. Early intervention for cognitive decline: can cognitive training be used as a selective prevention technique? Int Psychogeriatr. 2010; 22:537–548.
2. Walton CC, Mowszowski L, Lewis SJ, Naismith SL. Stuck in the mud: time for change in the implementation of cognitive training research in ageing? Front Aging Neurosci. 2014; 6:43.
3. Sohlberg MKM, Mateer CA. Cognitive Rehabilitation: An Integrative Neuropsychological Approach. Guilford Press;2001.
4. Wilson BA. Towards a comprehensive model of cognitive rehabilitation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 2002; 12:97–110.
5. Clare L, Woods RT, Moniz Cook ED, Orrell M, Spector A. Cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive training for early-stage Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003; CD003260.
6. Clare L, Woods RT. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer's disease: A review. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 2004; 14:385–340.
7. Taulbee LR, Folsom JC. Reality orientation for geriatric patients. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1966; 17:133–135.
8. Bahar-Fuchs A, Clare L, Woods B. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for persons with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's or vascular type: a review. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2013; 5:3.
9. Kueider AM, Parisi JM, Gross AL, Rebok GW. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2012; 7:e40588.
10. Zehnder F, Martin M, Altgassen M, Clare L. Memory training effects in old age as markers of plasticity: a meta-analysis. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2009; 27:507–520.
11. Verhaeghen P, Marcoen A, Goossens L. Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a meta-analytic study. Psychol Aging. 1992; 7:242–251.
12. Clare L, Linden DE, Woods RT, Whitaker R, Evans SJ, Parkinson CH, van Paasschen J, Nelis SM, Hoare Z, Yuen KS, Rugg MD. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for people with early-stage Alzheimer disease: a single-blind randomized controlled trial of clinical efficacy. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010; 18:928–939.
13. Clare L, van Paasschen J, Evans SJ, Parkinson C, Woods RT, Linden DE. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for an individual with Mild Cognitive Impairment: behavioural and neuroimaging outcomes. Neurocase. 2009; 15:318–331.
14. Clare L, Bayer A, Burns A, Corbett A, Jones R, Knapp M, Kopelman M, Kudlicka A, Leroi I, Oyebode J, Pool J, Woods B, Whitaker R. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation in early-stage dementia: study protocol for a multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (GREAT). Trials. 2013; 14:152.
15. Spector A, Orrell M, Davies S, Woods B. Reality orientation for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000; Cd001119.
16. Woods B, Aguirre E, Spector AE, Orrell M. Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012; 2:CD005562.
17. Martin M, Clare L, Altgassen AM, Cameron MH, Zehnder F. Cognition-based interventions for healthy older people and people with mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; CD006220.
18. Bahar-Fuchs A, Clare L, Woods B. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 6:CD00326.
19. Gates NJ, Sachdev PS, Fiatarone Singh MA, Valenzuela M. Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: a systematic review. BMC Geriatr. 2011; 11:55.
20. Valenzuela M, Sachdev P. Can cognitive exercise prevent the onset of dementia? Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with longitudinal follow-up. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009; 17:179–118.
Full Text Links
  • BN
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2022 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: