J Korean Assoc Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg.  2011 Sep;33(5):413-419.

Positional Changes of the Internal Reference Points Followed by Reposition of the Maxilla: A Study of a 3D Virtual Surgery Program

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, Kooalldam Dental Hospital, Korea.
  • 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kooalldam Dental Hospital, Korea. preos@hanmail.net


Reposition of the maxilla is a common technique for correction of midfacial deformities. To achieve the goal of the surgery, the maxilla should be repositioned based on the precisely planned position during surgery. The internal reference points (IRPs) and the external reference points (ERPs) are usually used to determine vertical dimension of maxilla, which is an important factor for confirming maxillary position. However, the IRPs are known to be inaccurate in determining the vertical dimension. In this study, we investigated the correlation of positional change of the modified IRPs with repositioned maxilla.
The study group consisted of 26 patients with dentofacial deformities. For the simulation of the surgery, patient maxillary CT data and 3-D virtual surgery programs (V-Works(R) and V-Surgery(R)) were used. IRPs of this study were set on both the lateral wall of piriform aperture, inferior margin of both infraorbital foramen, and the labial surfaces of the canine and first molar. The distance from the point on lateral wall of the piriform aperture to the point on the buccal surface of the canine was defined as IRP-C, and the distance from the point on the inferior margin of the infraorbital foramen to the point on the buccal surface of the 1st molar was defined as IRP-M. After the virtual simulation of Le Fort I osteotomy, the changes in IRP-C and IRP-M were compared with the maxillary movement. All measures were analyzed statistically.
With respect to vertical movements, the IRP-C (approximately 98%) and the IRP-M (approximately 96%) represented the movement of the canine and the 1st molar. Regarding rotating movement, the IRPs changed according to the movement of the canine and the 1st molar. In particular, the IRP-C was changed in accordance with the canine.
IRPs could be good indicators for predicting vertical movements of the maxilla during surgery.


Orthognathic surgery; Le Fort osteotomy; Reference point; Virtual surgery

MeSH Terms

Congenital Abnormalities
Dentofacial Deformities
Orthognathic Surgery
Osteotomy, Le Fort
Vertical Dimension
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