Korean J Orthod.  1999 Jun;29(3):361-374.

Initial changes of dental plaque, gingivitis and decalcification in Korean orthodontic patients with fixed appliance

  • 1Department of Dentistry, KangBuk Samsung University, Korea.
  • 2Department of orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Korea.


Intraoral fixed type of orthodontic appliance can cause reversible or irreversible damages such as gingivitis, periodontitis, enamel decalcification, dental caries, root resorption, and pulpal changes. Such an increase causes gingival inflammation and enamel decalcification. The purpose of this study is to get knowledge on initial changes in dental plaque, gingvitis, and enamel decalcification after bonding fixed orthodontic appliances according to time flow, gender, and sides(right/left) of premolar region. For control group, 48 students of dental college, Yonsei university(26 males, 22 females) were chosen: for experimental group, 73 orthodontic patients(36 males, 37 females) who will be treated with fixed appliances were chosen, All the subjects had no systemic disease, juvenile periodontitis and all the females had passed their menarche. Tooth brushing instruction was given to all the subjects prior to the experiment, For control group, plaque index, gingival index, and decalcification index were measured twice at 3 weeks interval : for experimental group, the same was done prior to, 3, 6, 9 weeks after bonding fixed appliances. The following results were obtained : 1. In plaque index 3 weeks after placement of appliances, and it showed gradual increase afterwards. 2. In gingival index 3 weeks after placement of appliances, and afterwards it showed increase at a faster rate than plaque index. 3. Enamel decalcification began to show between 3 and 6 weeks after bonding fixed appliances. Decalcification index began to increase 6 weeks after appliance placement, but there was no statistical significance. 4. When the comparison was made between two sides of premolar region, the right side showed greater index in plaque and gingival index of experimental group.


Fixed orthodontic appliances; Dental plaque; Gingivitis; Decalcification obligation
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