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Amoebic Encephalitis Caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris

Kum SJ, Lee HW, Jung HR, Choe M, Kim SP

We present the case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. He had rheumatic arthritis for 30 years and had undergone continuous treatment...
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Oxygen supplementation via high-flow nasal cannula is an effective treatment for pneumocephalus

Lee DS, Cha JK, Lee DH, Byun KS, Jeong JH

BACKGROUND: Oxygen supplementation through a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a powerful technique that promotes the absorption of air by delivering high concentrations of oxygen to patients who are not...
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Zolpidem Detection and Blood Level in Acute Poisoning-suspected Patients in Emergency Departments: Review of 229 Cases

Yu J, Chang H, Won S, Yeom J, Lee A, Park NY, Oh BJ

PURPOSE: Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs (including zolpidem) are associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicidal ideation. Considering the wide usage of zolpidem, this drug should be considered a possible...
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Severe Hypophosphatemia-Induced Acute Toxic-Metabolic Encephalopathy in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

Han SA, Park HY, Kim HW, Choi JI, Kang DY, Kim HL, Chung JH, Shin BC

Acute toxic-metabolic encephalopathy (TME) is an acute condition of global cerebral dysfunction in the absence of primary structural brain disease. Severe hypophosphatemia leads to muscle weakness and involves the diaphragm...
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Status Epilepticus in a Patient with Extrapontine Myelinolysis

Jang K, Woo N, Lee H, Kim D, Lyou HJ, Han HJ, Kim GS

Extrapontine myelinolysis is a demyelinating disorder usually caused by rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia. We present an 82-year-old female patient with general weakness, and severe hyponatremia (103 mEq/L) which was...
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Hemorrhagic shock caused by closed internal degloving injury: a case report

Kim HB, Park SC, Lee SH, Bae BK, Cho YM, Jang JH, Park SW

A closed internal degloving injury is a soft tissue injury, in which the subcutaneous tissue is ripped from the underlying fascia. In rare cases, a closed internal degloving injury can...
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Lateral Ventricular Meningioma Presenting with Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Moon JS, Cha SH, Cho WH

A 35-year-old female visited emergency department for a sudden onset of headache with vomiting after management for abortion at local department. Neurological examination revealed drowsy mentality without focal neurological deficits....
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Postpartum Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis: A Case Report

Han KH, Won YD, Na MK, Han MH, Ryu JI, Kim JM, Kim CH, Cheong JH

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, as CVST is potentially fatal. Pregnancy and puerperium are known risk factors for CVST. Here,...
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Burr Hole Drainage with Urokinase Irrigation for the Treatment of Acute Subdural Hematoma: A Case Report

Cho SW, Choi SW, Lim J, Kwon HJ, Kim SH, Koh HS, Youm JY, Song SH

We describe the case of a patient with an acute subdural hematoma (SDH) that was removed using urokinase irrigation after burr hole trephination in a limited situation where craniotomy was...
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A Successful Management after Cement Ingestion: A Case Report

Lee SH, Lee KW

Cases of the cement ingestion are rare. This paper reports the successful management of cement ingestion with gastric lavage and endoscopic washing. A 69-year-old man who had a stuporous mentality...
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Utility of Follow-up Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis: a Case Report

Choi WJ, Byeon JH, Eun SH, Eun BL, Kim GH

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is an acute, rapidly progressing, fulminant demyelinating disease. It is a rare disease of the central nervous system with high mortality; survivors commonly present with significant...
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Glanzmann Thrombasthenia in a Korean Patient: A Postoperative Intracranial Hemorrhagic Diasthesis in a Patient with a Rupture of a Cerebral Aneurysm

Choi MS, Lee JH, Lim YC

BACKGROUND: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare disease with severe insufficiency of platelet function. There are no reports of GT associated with a cerebral hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman had...
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Complete Reversal of Diffusion Restriction after Treatment of Traumatic Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

Shim JH, Han I

A 15-year-old man presented with stupor following a motorcycle traffic accident. The patient was diagnosed with a traumatic left carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) with pseudoaneurysm of the left internal carotid...
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Proper Management of Posttraumatic Tension Pneumocephalus

Kwon J, Rha HK, Park HK, Chough CK, Joo WI, Cho SH, Gu W, Moon W, Han J

Pneumocephalus is commonly seen after craniofacial injury. The pathogenesis of pneumocephalus has been debated as to whether it was caused by ball valve effect or combined episodic increased pressure within...
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Delayed Consecutive Contralateral Thalamic Hemorrhage after Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

Han JH, Jeon JP, Choi HJ, Yang JS, Kang SH, Cho YJ

Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic hemorrhagic events have ranged from 12 to 19 in prior reports, with a time lag between bilateral thalamic hemorrhage of up to two days. Herein,...
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Cardiac arrest due to intracranial hypotension following pseudohypoxic brain swelling induced by negative suction drainage in a cranioplasty patient: a case report

Moon HS, Lee SK, Kim SR, Kim SJ

Pseudohypoxic brain swelling (PHBS) is known to be an uncommon event that may occur during and following an uneventful brain surgery, when negative suction drainage is used. The cerebrospinal fluid...
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Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures

Yoon SY, Park SH, Hwang JH, Hwang SK

We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis...
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Zolpidem-Induced Arousal by Paradoxical GABAergic Stimulation: A Case Report With F-18 Flumazenil Positron Emission Tomography and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Study

Kim C, Kwon BS, Nam KY, Park JW, Lee HJ

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine drug that has selectivity for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. We experienced paradoxical effect of zolpidem in a 48-year-old male patient with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury after...
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Radiographic basal ganglia abnormalities secondary to nonketotic hyperglycemia with unusual clinical features

Choi JY, Park JM, Kim KH, Park JS, Shin DW, Kim H, Jeon WC, Kim HJ

A 77-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for altered consciousness and presented with a suspected basal ganglion hemorrhage detected on brain computed tomography. The patient was stuporous, but...
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Severe Cerebral Vasospasm in Patients with Hyperthyroidism

Oh HJ, Yoon SM, Oh JS, Shim JJ, Bae HG

Cerebral vasospasm associated with hyperthyroidism has not been reported to cause cerebral infarction. The case reported here is therefore the first of cerebral infarction co-existing with severe vasospasm and hyperthyroidism....
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