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Established and Emerging Therapies in Acute Spinal Cord Injury

Gadot R, Smith DN, Prablek M, Grochmal JK, Fuentes A, Ropper AE

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating for patients and their caretakers and has an annual incidence of 20–50 per million people. Following initial assessment with appropriate physical examination and...
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Complex Pathophysiology of Abusive Head Trauma with Poor Neurological Outcome in Infants

Park YS

Abusive head trauma (AHT) in infants, especially acute subdural hematoma, has an extremely poor outcome. The most decisive and important finding is the appearance of a widespread low-density area on...
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Causes and symptoms of varicose veins

Ko H, Ahn HJ

Background: Varicose veins are a common disease that cause edema, heaviness, pigmentation, and skin ulcers, ultimately affecting the quality of life. Various treatments have recently been developed; therefore, clinicians need...
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Pathophysiologic Mechanisms and Potential Biomarkers in Diabetic Kidney Disease

Jung CY, Yoo TH

Although diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease eventually requiring chronic kidney replacement therapy, the prevalence of DKD has failed to decline over the past...
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Pathophysiological aspects of insulin resistance in Atrial Fibrillation: novel therapeutic approaches

Rafaqat S, Rafaqat S, Rafaqat S

Background: Insulin resistance is associated with metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and inflammation which are the risk factors for Atrial Fibrillation. Many studies have reported that type 2 diabetes...
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Pathophysiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli during a host infection

Lee JB, Kim SK, Yoon JW

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. However, sporadic outbreaks caused by this microorganism in developed countries are frequently reported recently. As an...
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The Pathophysiology of Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease

Cyn J

Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a sleep disorder characterized by sensorimotor symptoms such as unpleasant sensations before sleep, akathisia, and periodic limb movements during sleep. It is also closely...
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Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of chronic pruritus

Ahn YH, Kang HR

“Itch” is an unpleasant sensation that elicits a desire to scratch. It is a common complaint among many patients and is associated with a markedly reduced quality of life. The...
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T4+T3 Combination Therapy: An Unsolved Problem of Increasing Magnitude and Complexity

Wiersinga WM

Thyroxine (T4)+triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy can be considered in case of persistent symptoms despite normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone in levothyroxine (LT4)-treated hypothyroid patients. Combination therapy has gained popularity in...
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The Usefulness of Symptom-based Subtypes of Functional Dyspepsia for Predicting Underlying Pathophysiologic Mechanisms and Choosing Appropriate Therapeutic Agents

Lee KJ

  • KMID: 2517526
  • J Neurogastroenterol Motil.
  • 2021 Jul;27(3):326-336.
  • doi: 10.5056/jnm21042
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder with different pathophysiological mechanisms or pathogenetic factors. In addition to traditional mechanisms, novel concepts regarding pathophysiologic mechanisms of FD have...
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Pathophysiology of neuropathic pain

Kwon O

Background: Neuropathic pain is notoriously difficult to manage properly, not only because of its varied nature and the absence of objective diagnostic tools but also because of extensive reciprocal neuronal...
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Current status of breast implantassociated anaplastic large cell lymphoma in South Korea

Yoon ES

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a unique type of lymphoma caused by breast implants. Concerns about BIA-ALCL have increased worldwide, and three domestic cases have been reported...
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Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution

Kim JH, Lim JS

The mean age at menarche (AAM) of Korean females has been rapidly decreasing over the last 50 years; currently, the prevalence of early menarche (
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The Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Acute Low Tone Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Kim KH, Kim BH, Lee S, Chung JH, Byun H, Lee SH

Background and Objectives Acute low tone sensorineural hearing loss (ALHL), an acuteonset hearing loss limited to low tone, was thought to be a subtype of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL)...
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Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: the Major Unmet Need in Cardiology

Shim CY

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently been recognized as the single greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine. As the population ages and the comorbidity increases, the prevalence...
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Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Pathophysiology and Treatment Principle: A Narrative Review

Lee BH, Moon SH, Suk KS, Kim HS, Yang JH, Lee HM

Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis may exhibit symptoms such as back pain, radiating pain, and neurogenic claudication. Although long-term outcome of treatments manifests similar results for both nonsurgical and surgical...
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Neuropathic Pain: How to Assess and Treat a Maladaptive Pain Response

Roh YH

Neuropathic pain is associated with primary lesion or dysfunction of the peripheral and central nerve systems, affecting up to 10% of the general population. Although both nociceptive pain and neuropathic...
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AL amyloidosis: advances in diagnosis and management

Koh Y

Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a disease in which malignant plasma cell clones affect multiple organs including the heart and kidney. The mechanism for organ function deterioration in AL amyloidosis...
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Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction: a review of pathophysiology

Habimana R, Choi I, Cho HJ, Kim D, Lee K, Jeong I

It is well known that cardiac dysfunction in sepsis is associated with significantly increased mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction can be summarized as involving impaired myocardial circulation, direct...
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Electrognostic findings ofGuillain-Barré syndrome

Yoon BA, Bae JS, Kim JK

The electrodiagnostic findings in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) play important roles in both understanding its pathophysiology and its diagnosis. Only demyelinating neuropathies were thought to be present when GBS patients were first diagnosed...
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