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Enzymes involved in folate metabolism and its implication for cancer treatment

Kim SE

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folate plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Intracellular folate homeostasis is maintained by the enzymes folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) and γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH). FPGS adds glutamate residues...
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Connecting the dots between SHP2 and glutamate receptors

Ryu HH, Kim SY, Lee YS

SHP2 is an unusual protein phosphatase that functions as an activator for several signaling pathways, including the RAS pathway, while most other phosphatases suppress their downstream signaling cascades. The physiological...
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Analysis of interaction between intracellular spermine and transient receptor potential canonical 4 channel: multiple candidate sites of negatively charged amino acids for the inward rectification of transient receptor potential canonical 4

Kim J, Moon SH, Kim T, Ko J, Jeon YK, Shin YC, Jeon JH, So I

Transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel is a nonselective calcium-permeable cation channels. In intestinal smooth muscle cells, TRPC4 currents contribute more than 80% to muscarinic cationic current (mIcat). With...
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Metabolomics approach to serum biomarker for laxative effects of red Liriope platyphylla in loperamide-induced constipation of SD rats

Kim JE, Lee YJ, Ryu SH, Park JW, Kang MJ, Choi HJ, Bae SJ, Choi Y, Kang HG, Kim KB, Kim S, Lim Y, Hwang DY

Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) is a known herbal medicine used in the treatment of some chronic diseases including constipation, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and obesity. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers...
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Memantine Attenuates Salicylate-induced Tinnitus Possibly by Reducing NR2B Expression in Auditory Cortex of Rat

Jang CH, Lee S, Park IY, Song A, Moon C, Cho GW

Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, suppresses the release of excessive levels of glutamate that may induce neuronal excitation. Here we investigated the effects of memantine on...
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Riluzole Selective Antioxidant Effects in Cell Models Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Endophenotypes

Sala G, Arosio A, Conti E, Beretta S, Lunetta C, Riva N, Ferrarese , Tremolizzo L

OBJECTIVE: Until recently, riluzole was the only drug licensed for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In spite of its efficacy, the mechanism of action remains elusive, and both blocking of glutamate...
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The Effect of Oral Administration of Black Sticky Rice with Giant Embryo on Brain GABA Concentrations

Jung WY, Kim SG, Kim HK, Huh SY, Kim DW, Yoon DU, Yang CH, Kim HY, Jang EY

OBJECTIVE: Black sticky rice with giant embryo (BSRGE) contains high GABA content and affects alcohol-related indices among social drinkers, and alcohol intake and anxiety-related behavior of mice. However, it is...
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Therapeutic Effects of Amino Acids in Liver Diseases: Current Studies and Future Perspectives

Lee DY, Kim EH

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is caused by infection of hepatitis...
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Polymorphisms of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor-Related Genes and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Chinese Population

Xie X, Hou F, Li L, Chen Y, Liu L, Luo X, Gu H, Li X, Zhang J, Gong J, Song R

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of GRIK2 and NLGN1 with autism spectrum disorder in a Chinese population. METHODS: We performed spatio-temporal expression analysis of GRIK2 and NLGN1 in the developing prefrontal...
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Analysis of 12 Chinese Patients with Proline-to-Leucine Mutation at Codon 102-Associated Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease

Wang J, Xiao K, Zhou W, Shi Q, Dong XP

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) with a proline-to-leucine mutation at codon 102 (P102L) in the PRNP gene is the most frequently reported GSS subtype worldwide. This study aimed to...
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The Clinical Value of PELP1 for Breast Cancer: A Comparison with Multiple Cancers and Analysis in Breast Cancer Subtypes

Wang X, Tsang JY, Lee MA, Ni YB, Tong JH, Chan SK, Cheung SY, To KF, Tse GM

PURPOSE: Proline, glutamic acid, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a novel nuclear receptor (NR) co-regulator, is highly expressed in breast cancer. We investigated its expression in breast cancer subtypes, in...
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Glutamine Supplementation Ameliorates Chronic Stress-induced Reductions in Glutamate and Glutamine Transporters in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

Baek JH, Vignesh A, Son H, Lee DH, Roh GS, Kang SS, Cho GJ, Choi WS, Kim HJ

Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) induces low levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) and hypoactive glutamatergic signaling in the mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is closely related to the Glu-Gln...
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Tweety-homolog (Ttyh) Family Encodes the Pore-forming Subunits of the Swelling-dependent Volume-regulated Anion Channel (VRAC(swell)) in the Brain

Han YE, Kwon J, Won J, An H, Jang MW, Woo J, Lee JS, Park MG, Yoon BE, Lee SE, Hwang EM, Jung JY, Park H, Oh SJ, Lee CJ

In the brain, a reduction in extracellular osmolality causes water-influx and swelling, which subsequently triggers Cl⁻- and osmolytes-efflux via volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC). Although LRRC8 family has been recently proposed...
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Dexmedetomidine and propofol sedation requirements in an autistic rat model

Elmorsy SA, Soliman GF, Rashed LA, Elgendy H

BACKGROUND: Autism is a challenging neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous clinical observations have suggested altered sedation requirements for children with autism. Our study aimed to test this observation experimentally in an animal...
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Antioxidant effects of kimchi supplemented with black raspberry during fermentation protect against liver cirrhosis-induced oxidative stress in rats

Ryu EH, Yang JS, Lee MJ, Kim SH, Seo HY, Jung JH

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major effector of various diseases; accordingly, antioxidants are frequently ingested in order to prevent or alleviate disease symptoms. Kimchi contains various natural antioxidants, and it...
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Pharmacological Therapy in Panic Disorder: Current Guidelines and Novel Drugs Discovery for Treatment-resistant Patient

Zulfarina , Syarifah-Noratiqah SB, Nazrun SA, Sharif R, Naina-Mohamed I

Panic disorder (PD) being one of the most intensively investigated anxiety disorders is considered a heterogeneous psychiatric disease which has difficulties with early diagnosis. The disorder is recurrent and usually...
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Change of Extracellular Glutamate Level in Striatum during Deep Brain Stimulation of the Entopeduncular Nucleus in Rats

Lee HJ, Sung JH, Hong JT, Kim IS, Yang SH, Cho CB

OBJECTIVE: Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is acknowledged as an essential treatment for advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nonetheless, the neurotransmitter study about its results is undiscovered. The goal of this research...
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Neuroprotective mechanisms of dieckol against glutamate toxicity through reactive oxygen species scavenging and nuclear factor-like 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway

Cui Y, Amarsanaa , Lee JH, Rhim JK, Kwon JM, Kim SH, Park JM, Jung SC, Eun SY

Glutamate toxicity-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases as well as acute brain ischemia/stroke. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective...
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Simultaneous Detection of Clostridioides difficile Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Toxin A/B: Comparison of the C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and RIDASCREEN Assays

Yoo IY, Song DJ, Huh HJ, Lee NY

Various commercial assays have recently been developed for detecting glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and/or toxin A/B to diagnose Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We compared the performance of two assays for the...
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Gender Differences in the Clinical Manifestation of Depression and Related Neurotransmitters

Yoon S, Chang SM

Depression is almost twice as prevalent in women than men. Atypical symptoms, somatic complaints, and comorbid anxiety disorders are more common in women, whereas suicide and comorbid substance use disorders...
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