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LRRK2 Inhibits FAK Activity by Promoting FERM-mediated Autoinhibition of FAK and Recruiting the Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-2

Choi I, Byun JW, Park SM, Jou I, Joe EH

Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported that LRRK2 directly binds to and phosphorylates the threonine 474...
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Systematic Analysis of Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) Ligands on Toll-like Receptors-mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglia and Astrocytes

Lee JW, Nam H, Yu SW

Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein highly expressed on reactive microglia and astrocytes, and is considered as a biomarker for neurodegeneration and brain damage, especially neuroinflammation. Toll-like...
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Comparative Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Regulating Microglial Activation

Song GJ, Kim J, Kim JH, Song S, Park H, Zhang ZY, Suk K

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study,...
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Inflammation after Ischemic Stroke: The Role of Leukocytes and Glial Cells

Kim JY, Park J, Chang JY, Kim SH, Lee JE

The immune response after stroke is known to play a major role in ischemic brain pathobiology. The inflammatory signals released by immune mediators activated by brain injury sets off a...
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Astrocytes and Microglia as Non-cell Autonomous Players in the Pathogenesis of ALS

Lee J, Hyeon SJ, Im H, Ryu H, Kim Y, Ryu H

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a progressive muscle wasting and paralysis. The pathological phenotypes are featured by severe motor neuron death and glial...
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Two-pore Domain Potassium Channels in Astrocytes

Ryoo K, Park JY

Two-pore domain potassium (K(2P)) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K⁺ current. The 15 members of the K(2P) channels are identified and...
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Optogenetic and Chemogenetic Approaches for Studying Astrocytes and Gliotransmitters

Bang J, Kim HY, Lee H

The brain consists of heterogeneous populations of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The revelation of their connections and interactions is fundamental to understanding normal brain functions as well as abnormal changes...
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Optogenetic Glia Manipulation: Possibilities and Future Prospects

Cho WH, Barcelon E, Lee SJ

Our brains are composed of two distinct cell types: neurons and glia. Emerging data from recent investigations show that glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, are able to regulate synaptic...
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