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A Case of Thyrotoxic Myopathy with Extreme Type 2 Fiber Predominance

Kim TJ, Lee HS, Shin JY, Kim DG, Kim SM, Sung JJ, Lee KW

In hyperthyroidism, many patients had neuromuscular symptoms and clinical weakness correlated with free thyroxine (T4) concentrations. The common clinical symptoms of chronic thyrotoxic myopathy were characterized by progressive weakness in...
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Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Mice: Effects of Microinjection of Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonist into the Nucleus Accumbens

Jung ES, Lee HJ, Sim HR, Baik JH

To determine the role of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization, D2R antagonist, raclopride was bilaterally microinjected (2.5 or 5 nmol) into...
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Beneficial Effect of Vitamin E in Rotenone Induced Model of PD: Behavioural, Neurochemical and Biochemical Study

Sharma N, Nehru B

Parkinson's disease (PD) a neurodegenerative disorder for which no preventive or long-term effective treatment strategies are available. Epidemiologic studies have failed to identify specific environmental, dietary or lifestyle risk factors...
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Apoptotic Effects of Melandryum firmum Root Extracts in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

Rahman MA, Yang H, Lim SS, Huh SO

Melandryum firmum is a biennial plant that has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of bacterial and fungal infection. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of Melandryum...
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4-hydroxy-2(E)-Nonenal facilitates NMDA-Induced Neurotoxicity via Triggering Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening and Mitochondrial Calcium Overload

Choi IY, Lim JH, Kim C, Song HY, Ju C, Kim WK

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is one of the major causes for neuronal cell death during cerebral ischemic insult. Previously, we reported that the final product of lipid membrane peroxidation 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal...
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The Neural Basis of Optimism and Pessimism

Hecht D

Our survival and wellness require a balance between optimism and pessimism. Undue pessimism makes life miserable; however, excessive optimism can lead to dangerously risky behaviors. A review and synthesis of...
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Promise of Neurorestoration and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Parkinson's Disease with Multi Target Drugs: An Alternative to Stem Cell Therapy

Youdim MB, Oh YJ

There is an unmet need in progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The present therapeutics for these diseases at best is symptomatic and is not able to...
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In-vivo Optical Measurement of Neural Activity in the Brain

Kim SA, Jun SB

The optical neural recording techniques are promising tools in recent years. Compared to the traditional electrophysiological recording, the optical means offer several advantages including no inclusion of electrical noise, simultaneous...
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Physiological and Pathological Significance of Dynamin-Related Protein 1 (Drp1)-Dependent Mitochondrial Fission in the Nervous System

Cho B, Choi SY, Cho HM, Kim HJ, Sun W

Mitochondria are essential for proper neuronal morphogenesis and functions, as they are the major source of energy for neural development. The dynamic morphology of mitochondria determines the key functions of...
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Brain-Region Specific Apoptosis Triggered by Eph/ephrin Signaling

Park S

Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are abundantly expressed in neuroepithelial cells of the early embryonic brain. Overstimulation of Eph signaling in vivo increases apoptotic cell death of neuroepithelial cells,...
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Neuronal Autophagy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Lee KM, Hwang SK, Lee JA

Neurodevelopmental disorders include a wide range of diseases such as autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation. Mutations in several genes that regulate neural development and synapse function have been identified...
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