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Aberrant Effective Connectivity of the Ventral Putamen in Boys With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Lan Z, Sun Y, Zhao L, Xiao Y, Kuai C, Xue SW

Objective The connectivity alterations in the putamen were found in revealing the neural correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but whether the effective connectivity of the putamen is atypical in ADHD...
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Association between Alcohol Consumption and Serum Cortisol Levels: a Mendelian Randomization Study

Yang JH, Kweon SS, Lee YH, Choi SW, Ryu SY, Nam HS, Park KS, Kim HY, Shin MH

Background: Several studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between alcohol consumption and cortisol levels. However, the causality between alcohol consumption and cortisol levels has not been evaluated. Methods: This...
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Causal Attributions and Quality of Life of Korean Breast Cancer Survivors

Lee Y, Jeon YW, Im EO, Baek JM

Purpose The purpose of this study was threefold: to explore the causal attributions of breast cancer, examine underlying factors of the attributes, and determine their relationship to quality of life among...
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Factors Associated with 5-Year Costs of Care among a Cohort of Alcohol Use Disorder Patients: A Bayesian Network Model

Rautiainen E, Ryynänen O, Laatikainen T, Kekolahti

Objectives To examine the direct effects of risk factors associated with the 5-year costs of care in persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine whether remission decreases the costs...
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A Case Report of Cyanopsia after Taking Sildenafil

Lee CH, Yoon JS, Ji E

The emergence of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitors gave rise to the solution for erectile dysfunction, starting with the development of sildenafil. Although their efficacy in treating erectile dysfunction has been...
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Two-sample Mendelian randomization study for schizophrenia and breast cancer

Kim S, Kim K, Myung W, Lee H, Kim H, Kim DK, Won HH

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the risk of schizophrenia is causally associated with the risk of breast cancer. Methods: Bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) was performed...
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Overview of Mendelian Randomization Analysis

Lee YH

he inference of causality from observational evidence may be problematic, as observational studies frequently include confounding factors or reverse causation for the identification of associations between exposure and outcome. Thus,...
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Equivalence model: A new graphical model for causal inference

Poorolajal J

Although several causal models relevant to epidemiology have been proposed, a key question that has remained unanswered is why some people at high-risk for a particular disease do not develop...
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A Case Report of Esophageal Ulceration after Taking Doxycycline

Kim GY, Lee CH, Lee JW, Lee JM, Lee MS, Ji E

Doxycycline is frequently prescribed to treat urogenital infections or acne vulgaris. A 39-year-old man was prescribed doxycycline as a treatment for his skin infection. He took each tablet on an...
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Mendelian Randomization Analysis in Observational Epidemiology

Lee K, Lim CY

Mendelian randomization (MR) in epidemiology is the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) in non-experimental design to make causality of a modifiable exposure on an outcome or disease....
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Visual Field Defect after Taking Atorvastatin/Ezetimibe, a Case Study

Kim J, Lee K, Kim J, Lee JM, Kim NY, Lee MS, Ji E

Atorvastatin is one of the most widely prescribed medications for dyslipidemia treatment. In Korea, post combined therapy with ezetimibe, a 73-year-old woman was reported by a community pharmacy to have...
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Psychiatric Symptoms after Taking Oseltamivir in a Child and Its Causality Assessment

Son P, Choi J, Lee S, Park SS, Choi E, Yoo BK, Ji E

Oseltamivir is an antiviral medication prescribed to prevent and treat influenza A and B. A case from a community pharmacy in Korea was reported for an adverse event associated with...
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Association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with hypertension and blood pressure values in Korean adults: A Mendelian randomization study on a subset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2011–2012 population

Kwak SY, Cho Y, Oh H, Shin MJ

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with a higher risk of hypertension (HTN); however, it remains unclear whether the relationship is causal. We aimed to evaluate the...
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Trends in the of epidemiological perspectives on the causality of occupational diseases

Myong JP, Kim H, Lee K, Chang SH

The main role of industrial accident compensation insurance is to protect injured workers and their families by providing various benefits. If a certain disease occurs due to work, the worker...
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Causation and apportionment analysis of injury and physical impairment

Lee SG

Most injury is caused by an external cause to the human body, resulting in morphological or functional disability. However, in the physical impairment related diseases, it is difficult for the...
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Determination of cause and manner of death

Yoo SH

Medical certificates of death and post-mortem examinations reflect the exclusive competence of medical doctors, according to Article 17 of the Medical Service Act. Although a medical certificate of death is...
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Cerebral Aneurysms in Judicial Precedents

Lee KS, Shim JJ, Shim JH, Oh JS, Yoon SM

OBJECTIVE: From November 30, 2016, the Korean Government carried the revised Medical Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Act into effect. Mediation will start automatically without agreements of the defendant, when the...
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Hyperprolactinemia after taking Levosulpiride and its Causality Assessment: An Adverse Event Reported by a Community Pharmacy

Lee H, Jo YJ, Yoon JS, Ji E

Levosulpiride is one of the most frequently prescribed medicines in Korea. An adverse drug reaction (ADR) after taking levosulpiride was reported at a community pharmacy in Korea. A 31-year-old woman...
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Causes and Trauma Apportionment Score of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

Lee KS, Yoon SM, Oh JS, Oh HJ, Shim JJ, Doh JW

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is not yet clear. Trauma alone is not sufficient to result in CSH in young individuals, while a trivial injury can result...
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Causal inference in environmental epidemiology

Bae S, Kim HC, Ye B, Choi WJ, Hong YS, Ha M

Inferring causality is necessary to achieve the goal of epidemiology, which is to elucidate the cause of disease. Causal inference is conducted in three steps: evaluation of validity of the...
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