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Bicipital origin and the course of the plantaris muscle

Heo Y, Lee H, Hwang SJ

The plantaris muscle (PM) has a small fusiform muscle belly and a long slender tendon sandwiched between the soleus (SM) and gastrocnemius muscle (GM). During routine dissection for research, an...
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Anomalous Origins of the Bilateral Vertebral Arteries Arising from the Aortic Arch: A Case Report

Park C, Lee BH

Various anomalous origins of the vertebral arteries (VAs) have been reported. However, anomalous origins of the bilateral VAs arising directly from the aortic arch are extremely rare. We encountered a...
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The ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery penetrating the posterior division of the femoral nerve

Kim H, Nam YS, Kim YS

Understanding anatomic variations in neurovascular structure inside the femoral triangle is crucial for regional anesthesiologists performing femoral nerve block. During routine dissection of a cadaver, an ascending branch of the...
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Reunification of a split sciatic nerve

Huang B, Decater T, Iwanaga J, Dumont AS, Tubbs RS

Sciatic nerve (SN) variaitons can result in interesting clinical presentations. We identified a SN variant that does not fit into preexisting classification schemes. In an adult male cadaver, the SN...
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Variation in the vertebral levels of the origins of the abdominal aorta branches: a retrospective imaging study

Fataftah J, Amarin JZ, Suradi HH, Hadidi MT, Shatarat AT, Al Manasra ARA, Shahin S, Badran DH

Our aim was to investigate the variation in the vertebral levels of the origins of the celiac artery, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, paired renal arteries, and common iliac arteries....
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Double Cystic Artery Originating in a Right and a Segment IV Hepatic Artery: A Case Report

Kim MJ, Yoon YC

Anatomical variation of the cystic artery (CA) is frequently observed. However, a CA originating in a segment IV hepatic artery (HA) has been rarely reported. We report double CA originating...
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Evaluation of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree anatomy and its variation by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in Odisha population: a retrospective study

Swain B, Sahoo RK, Sen KK, Kumar G M, Parihar SS, Dubey R

Intrahepatic and extrahepatic anatomical knowledge is essential for pre procedural planning of liver transplantation, liver resection, complex biliary reconstruction and radiological biliary tree intervention. Indian data of biliary anatomy and...
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A rare case of trifid mandibular canal with bilateral retromolar foramina

There are many reported anatomical variations of the mandibular canal. Consequently, there is great variation in the retromolar area, such as the quantity, size, and location of the retromolar foramen...
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An unusual finding of the pectoralis major muscle: decussation of sternal fibers across the midline

Burley H, Georgiev GP, Iwanaga J, Dumont AS, Tubbs RS

Variations of the pectoralis major muscle are commonly seen. However, during the routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, an apparently uncommon muscular variant was identified. In this cadaver, the...
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Anatomical variations of the equine popliteal tendon

Cuevas-Ramos G, Cova M, Arguelles , Prades M

The function of the popliteal muscle and tendon in horses remains undescribed. In humans, it is considered a stabilizer of the posterior-lateral region of the knee; its function is closely...
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Ansa Pancreatica-Type Anatomic Variation of the Pancreatic Duct in Patients with Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis and Chronic Localized Pancreatitis

Ha J, Kim KW, Kim JH, Lee SS, Kim HJ, Byun JH, Lee MG

Ansa pancreatic is a rare variation of pancreas duct. Ansa pancreatica is characterized by focal accessory duct atrophy and an additional curved duct linking main and accessory ducts replacing atrophied...
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An elongated dorsally curved xiphoid process

Lachkar S, Iwanaga J, Tubbs RS

The xiphoid process of the sternum lies in the epigastric region and functions to serve as an attachment point for vital muscles that aid in respiration. With the xiphoid process...
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The best vein to be accessed based on descriptive study of dorsal metacarpal vein

Salameh MA, Shatarat A, Badran DH, Abu-Abeeleh MA, Massad IM, Bani-Hani

It is well known that the most common sites for venous access are the superficial veins of the upper limb, particularly dorsal metacarpal veins and median cubital vein. Although dorsal...
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Clinical significance and characteristics of left-sided gallbladder: case series study of 10 patients

Lee DH, Kim D, Park YH, Kim JS

PURPOSE: The aims of this case series study were to review the 10 patients who were diagnosed with left-sided gallbladder and analyze their anatomic variations in the bile duct, portal...
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Entirely Replaced Left Gastric Artery from the Left Hepatic Artery: A Case Report

Kim S, Seo JW, Shin W

Arteries originating from the celiac axis have numerous anatomical variations. When performing interventional and surgical procedures, it is important to be aware of these variations to have better outcomes and...
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Common Hepatic Artery Originating from Left Gastric Artery: A Rare Variant Encountered in Gastric Cancer Surgery

Choi CI, Jeon TY

The hepatic artery can have numerous variations. However, a common hepatic artery originating from the left gastric artery and the entire hepatic blood supply furnished by the left gastric artery...
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Spinal Enumeration by Morphologic Analysis of Spinal Variants: Comparison to Counting in a Cranial-To-Caudal Manner

Yun S, Park S, Park JG, Huh JD, Shin YG, Yun JH

OBJECTIVE: To compare the spinal enumeration methods that establish the first lumbar vertebra in patients with spinal variants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 1446 consecutive patients who had undergone computed tomography...
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Unusual muscle of the anterior neck: cadaveric findings with surgical applications

Iwanaga J, Tabira Y, Fisahn C, Alonso F, Watanabe K, Kusukawa J, Oskouian R, Tubbs RS, Yamaki KI

The omohyoid muscle typically has an inferior belly originating from the superior border of the scapula, and then passes deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle where its superior belly passes almost...
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Clinicopathologic evaluation of myofibroblastoma: A study in two hospitals

Kim SK, Lee JS, Hong SB, Lee JR, Jee BC, Suh CS, Kim SH

OBJECTIVE: To report various anatomic locations and clinical characteristics of pathologically proven myofibroblastoma in Koran patients. METHODS: Pathologic reports of patients who underwent surgeries at two centers between April 2003 and...
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Post-traumatic bifid mandibular condyle: A case report and literature review

Woo MH, Yoon KH, Park KS, Park JA

Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is an uncommon morphological variant of the mandibular condyle. Although authors have proposed various etiologies for BMC, no consensus has emerged. In addition, varying findings have...
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